Monday, January 01, 2007

The Sons of God

Winged Disk

Winged Disk, Persepolis, Iran

The Sons of God

(1) The Sumerian Watchers

"...Man and his early civilizations had a profoundly different mentality from our own, that in fact men and women were not conscious as are we, were not responsible for their actions, and therefore cannot be given the credit or blame for anything that was done over these vast millennia of time; that instead each person had a part of his nervous system that was divine, by which he was ordered about like any slave, a voice or voices which indeed were what we call volition and empowered what they commanded and were related to the hallucinated voices of others in a carefully established hierarchy."
"...The astonishing consistency from Egypt to Peru, from Ur to Yucatan, wherever civilizations arose, of death practices and idolatry, of divine government and hallucinated voices, all are witness to the idea of a different mentality than our own."
"The gods were in no sense 'figments of the imagination' of anyone. They were man's volition. They occupied his nervous system, probably his right hemisphere, and from stores of admonitory and receptive experience, transmuted this experience into articulated speech which then 'told' the man what to do."

"Throughout Mesopotamia, from the earliest times of Sumer and Akkad, all lands were owned by gods and men were their slaves. Of this, the cuneiform texts leave no doubt whatever. Each city-state had its own principal god, and the king was described in the very earliest written documents that we have as 'the tenant farmer of the god'."
- Julian Jaynes, The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind

"... The Akkadians called their predecessors Shumerians, and spoke of the Land of Shumer.
"It was, in fact, the biblical Land of Shin'ar. It was the land whose name - Shumer - literally meant the Land of the Watchers. It was indeed the Egyptian Ta Neter - Land of the Watchers, the land from which the gods had come to Egypt."
- Zecharia Sitchin, The Stairway to Heaven

"It was from that planet [Nibiru], the Sumerian texts repeatedly and persistently stated, that the Anunnaki came to Earth. The term literally means 'Those Who from Heaven to Earth Came.' They are spoken of in the Bible as the Anakim, and in Chapter 6 of Genesis are also call Nefilim, which in Hebrew means the same thing: Those Who Have Come Down, from the Heavens to Earth."
- Zecharia Sitchin, Genesis Revisited

"The Anakim may have been Mycenaean Greek colonists, belonging to the 'Sea Peoples' confederation which caused Egypt such trouble in the fourteenth century B.C. Greek mythographers told of a Giant Anax ('king'), son of Heaven and Mother Earth, who ruled Anactoria (Miletus) in Asia Minor. According to Appollodorus, the disinterred skeleton of Asterius ('starry'), Anax's successor, measured ten cubits. Akakes, the plural of Nanx, was an epithet of the Greek gods in general. Talmudic commentators characteristically make the Anakim three thousand cubits tall."
- Robert Graves and Raphael Patai, Hebrew Myths: The Book of Genesis

(2) The Egyptian Ntr

There is archaeological evidence of a strong cultural connection between Sumer and ancient Egypt.

"Ptah and the other gods were called, in Egyptian, Ntr - 'Guardian, Watcher'."
- Zecharia Sitchin, The Wars of Gods and Men

During the fabled "First Time, Zep Tepi, when the gods ruled in their country: they said it was a golden age during which the waters of the abyss receded, the primordial darkness was banished, and humanity, emerging into the light, was offered the gifts of civilization. They spoke also of intermediaries between gods and men - the Urshu, a category of lesser divinities whose title meant 'the Watchers'. And they preserved particularly vivid recollections of the gods themselves, puissant and beautiful beings called the Neteru who lived on earth with humankind and exercised their sovereignty from Heliopolis and other sanctuaries up and down the Nile. Some of these Neteru were male and some female but all possessed a range of supernatural powers which included the ability to appear, at will, as men or women, or as animals, birds, reptiles, trees or plants. Paradoxically, their words and deeds seem to have reflected human passions and preoccupations. Likewise, although they were portrayed as stronger and more intelligent than humans, it was believed that they could grow sick - or even die, or be killed - under certain circumstance."
- Graham Hancock, Fingerprints of the Gods

"'Deliver thou the scribe Nebseni, whose word is truth, from the Watchers, who carry murderous knives, who possess cruel fingers, and who would slay those who are in the following of Osiris.'
May these Watchers never gain the mastery over me, and may I never fall under their knives!'

"Who are these Watchers?

"'They are Anubis and Horus, [the latter being] in the form of Horus the sightless. Others, however, say that they are the Tchatcha (sovereign princes of Osiris), who bring to nought the operations of their knives; and others say that they are the chiefs of the Sheniu chamber.
'May their knives never gain the mastery over me. May I never fall under the knives wherewith they inflict cruel tortures. For I know their names, and I know the being, Matchet, who is among them in the House of Osiris. He shooteth forth rays of light from his eye, being himself invisible, and he goeth round about heaven robed in the flames which come from his mouth, commanding Hapi, but remaining invisible himself. May I be strong on earth before Ra, may I arrive safely in the presence of Osiris. O ye who preside over your altars, let not your offerings to me be wanting, for I am one of those who follow after Nebertcher, according to the writings of Khepera. Let me fly like a hawk, let me cackle like a goose, let me lay always like the serpent-goddess Neheb-ka.'"
- The Egyptian Book of the Dead

"They had come to Egypt, the Egyptians wrote, from Ta-Ur, the 'Far/Foreign Land,' whose name Ur meant 'oldest' but could have also been the actual place name - a place will known from Mesopotamian and biblical records: the ancient city of Ur in southern Mesopotamia. And the straits of the Red Sea, which connected Mesopotamia and Egypt, were called Ta-Neter, the 'Place of the Gods,' the passage by which they had come to Egypt. That the earliest gods did come from the biblical lands of Shem is additionally borne out by the puzzling fact that the names of these olden gods were of 'Semitic' (Akkadian) derivation. Thus Ptah, which had no meaning in Egyptian, meant 'he who fashioned things by carving and opening up' in the Semitic tongues."
- Zecharia Sitchin, The Wars of Gods and Men

"The Legend of Votan, who had built the first city that was the cradle of Mesoamerican civilization, was written down by Spanish chroniclers from oral Mayan traditions. The emblem of Votan, they recorded, was the serpent; 'he was a descendant of the Guardians, of the race of Can'. 'Guardians' was the meaning of the Egyptian term Neteru (i.e., 'gods'). Can, studies such as that by Zelia Nuttal (Papers of the Peabody Museum) have suggested was a variant of Canaan who was (according to the Bible) a member of the Hamitic peoples of Africa and a brother-nation of the Egyptians."
- Zecharia Sitchin, When Time Began

(3) Bene Elohim

Note that plural gods elohim' appears in the earliest Hebrew texts, even though it is translated as God (El) in modern texts.

"...The sons of gods (bene ha-elohim') saw the daughters of men that they were fair..."
- Genesis 6:2a

"The sons of God (or children of God; 'bene elohim' and variants) are divine members of God's heavenly host...The title 'sons/children of God' is familiar from Ugaritic mythology, in which the gods collectively are the 'children of El'...The sons/children of God are also found in Phoenician and Ammonite inscriptions, referring to the pantheon of sub-ordinate deities, indicating that the term was widespread in the West Semitic religions."
- Oxford Companion to the Bible

"The Watchers were "a specific race of divine beings known in Hebrew as nun resh 'ayin, 'irin' (resh 'ayin, 'ir' in singular), meaning 'those who watch' or 'those who are awake', which is translated into Greek as Egrhgoroi egregoris or grigori, meaning 'watchers'. These Watchers feature in the main within the pages of pseudepigraphal and apocryphal works of Jewish origin, such as the Book of Enoch and the Book of Jubilees. Their progeny, according to Hebrew tradition, are named as nephilim, a Hebrew word meaning 'those who have fallen' or 'the fallen ones', translated into Greek as gigantez, gigantes, or 'giants' - a monstrous race featured in the Theogony of the hellenic writer Hesiod (c. 907 BC)."
- Andrew Collins, From the Ashes of Angels - The Forbidden Legacy of a Fallen Race (1996) p. 3

"The statement (Gen. 6:1) that the 'sons of God' married the daughters of men is explained of the fall of the angels, in Enoch, vi-xi, and codices, D, E F, and A of the Septuagint read frequently, for 'sons of God', oi aggeloi tou qeou ['angels of God']. Unfortunately, codices B and C are defective in Ge., vi, but it is probably that they, too, read oi aggeloi in this passage, for they constantly so render the expression 'sons of God'; cf. Job i, 6; ii, 1; xxxviii, 7; but on the other hand, see Ps. ii, 1; lxxxviii, & (Septuagint). Philo, in commenting on the passage in his treatise 'Quod Deus sit immutabilis', i, follows the Septuagint."
- Hugh Pope, The Catholic Encyclopedia

"Angels came late into Jewish theology, generally from the non-Jewish myths of the East. The early books of the Bible speak of some vague heavenly beings called malochim (singular, malach). Although malach is usually translated angel, its literal meaning is messenger."
- Harry Gersh, The Sacred Books of the Jews

"The angel of the LORD found Hagar near a spring in the desert; it was the spring that is beside the road to Shur."
- Genesis 16:7

"At first the angels are regarded in quite an impersonal way (Gen. xvi, 7).They are God's vice-regents and are often identified with the Author of their message (Gen. xlviii, 15-16). But while we read of 'the Angels of God' meeting Jacob (Gen. xxxii, 1) we at other times read of one who is termed 'the Angel of God' par excellence, e.g. Gen., xxxi, 11."
- Hugh Pope, The Catholic Encyclopedia

"But the angel of the LORD called out to him from heaven, 'Abraham! Abraham!'"
- Genesis 22:11

"It is true that, owing to the Hebrew idiom, this may mean no more than 'an angel of God', and the Septuagint renders it with or without the article at will; yet the three visitors at Mambre seem to have been of different ranks, though St. Paul (Heb. xiii, 2) regarded them all as equally angels; as the story in Ge. xiii, develops, the speaker is always 'the Lord'. Thus in the account of the Angel of the Lord who visited Gideon (Judges vi), the visitor is alternately spoken of as 'the Angel of the Lord' and as 'the Lord'. Similarly, in Judges xiii, the Angel of the Lord appears...."
- Hugh Pope, The Catholic Encyclopedia

"Then Manoah took a young goat, together with the grain offering, and sacrificed it on a rock to the LORD. And the LORD did an amazing thing while Manoah and his wife watched: As the flame blazed up from the altar toward heaven, the angel of the LORD ascended in the flame. Seeing this, Manoah and his wife fell with their faces to the ground. When the angel of the LORD did not show himself again to Manoah and his wife, Manoah realized that it was the angel of the LORD.
'We are doomed to die!' he said to his wife. 'We have seen God!'"
- Judges 13:19-22

"This want of clearness is particularly apparent in the various accounts of the Angel of Exodus. In Judges vi, just now referred to, the Septuagint is very careful to render the Hebrew 'Lord' by 'the Angel of the Lord'; but in the story of the Exodus it is the Lord who goes before them in the pillar of a cloud (Exod. xiii 21), and the Septuagint makes no change (cf. also Num. xiv, 14, and Neh. ix, 7-20."
- Hugh Pope, The Catholic Encyclopedia

"By day the LORD went ahead of them in a pillar of cloud to guide them on their way and by night in a pillar of fire to give them light, so that they could travel by day or night."
- Exodus 13:21

"Yet in Exod. xiv, 19, their guide is termed 'the Angel of God. When we turn to Exod., xxxiii, where God is angry with His people for worshipping the golden calf, it is hard not to feel that it is God Himself who has hitherto been their guide, but who now refuses to accompany them any longer. God offers an angel instead, but at Moses's petition He says (14) 'My face shall go before thee', which the Septuagint reads by autoV though the following verse shows that this rendering is clearly impossible, for Moses objects: 'If Thou Thyself dost not go before us, bring us not out of this place.' But what does God mean by 'my face'? Is it possible that some angel of specially high rank is intended, as in Is. lxiii, 9 (cf. Tobias xii, 15)? May not this be what is meant by 'the Angel of God' (cf. Num. xx, 16)?"
- Hugh Pope, The Catholic Encyclopedia

"He [the Lord] said, 'Surely they are my people, sons who will not be false to me'; and so he became their Savior. In all their distress he too was distressed, and the angel of his presence saved them. In his love and mercy he redeemed them; he lifted them up and carried them all the days of old. Yet they rebelled and grieved his Holy Spirit. So he turned and became their enemy and he himself fought against them."
- Isaiah 63:9-10

"The Massoretic text as well as the Vulgate of Exod. iii and xix-xx clearly represent the Supreme Being as appearing to Moses in the bush and on Mount Sinai; but the Septuagint version, while agreeing that it was God Himself who gave the Law, yet makes it 'the angel of the Lord' who appeared in the bush."
- Hugh Pope, The Catholic Encyclopedia

"There the angel of the LORD appeared to him in flames of fire from within a bush. Moses saw that though the bush was on fire it did not burn up. Moses thought, 'I will go over and see this strange sight--why the bush does not burn up.'
When the LORD saw that he had gone over to look, God called to him from within the bush, 'Moses! Moses!'"
- Exodus 3:2-4a

"By New Testament times the Septuagint view has prevailed, and it is now not merely in the bush that the angel of the Lord, and not God Himself appears, but the angel is also the Giver of the Law (cf. Gal. iii, 19; Heb. ii, 2; Acts vii, 30)."
- Hugh Pope, The Catholic Encyclopedia

"The law was put into effect through angels by a mediator"
- Galatians 3:19c

"The person of 'the angel of the Lord' finds a counterpart in the personification of Wisdom in the Sapiential books and in at least one passage (Zach. iii, 1) it seems to stand for that 'Son of Man' whom Daniel (vii, 13) saw brought before 'the Ancient of Days'. Zacharias says: 'And the Lord showed me Jesus the high priest standing before the angel of the Lord, and Satan stood on His right hand to be His adversary'."
- Hugh Pope, The Catholic Encyclopedia

Unlike the "messengers" who could be mistaken for humans in the Book of Genesis, Daniel's angel was resplendent in its divinity.

"I looked up and there before me was a man dressed in linen, with a belt of the finest gold around his waist.waist. His body was like chrysolite, his face like lightning, his eyes like flaming torches, his arms and legs like the gleam of burnished bronze, and his voice like the sound of a multitude. I, Daniel, was the only one who saw the vision; the men with me did not see it, but such terror overwhelmed them that they fled and hid themselves."
- Daniel 10:5-7

"Later Biblical books developed the idea of malochim [messengers], but it wasn't until the Book of Daniel, written in the second century BC, that some of these heavenly creatures were given names. Daniel mentions Gabriel (geber is man, El is God) and Michael. The later non-canonical books built a whole hierarchy of angels, headed by Metatron, prince of the heavenly hosts."
- Harry Gersh, The Sacred Books of the Jews

"In the Hebrew writings, the term 'Heavenly Hosts' includes not only the counselors and emissaries of Jehovah, but also the celestial luminaries; and the stars, imagined in the East to be animated intelligences, presiding over human weal and woe, are identified with the more distinctly impersonated messengers or angels, who execute the Divine decrees, and whose predominance in heaven is in mysterious correspondence and relation with the powers and dominions of the earth. In Job, the Morning Stars and the Sons of God are identified; they join in the same chorus of praise to the Almighty; they are both susceptible of joy; they walk in brightness, and are liable to impurity and imperfection in the sight of God."
- General Albert Pike, Morals and Dogma

"He [king Josiah] did away with the pagan priests appointed by the kings of Judah to burn incense on the high places of the towns of Judah and on those around Jerusalem--those who burned incense to Baal, to the sun and moon, to the constellations [Mazzaloth] and to all the starry hosts."
- 2 Kings 23:5

"Can you bring forth the constellations [Mazzaloth] in their seasons [a reference to the twelve signs of the Zodiac] or lead out the Bear [Arcturus] with its cubs?"
- Job 38:32

Arcturus is Ursa Major and the three stars in its tail are the cubs.

Click here to learn about the origin of the watchers in the Guardian Stars.

(4) The Apocryphal Tradition

Ca. 150 B.C.E., the author of 1 Enoch wrote of his spell-binding journey to heaven where he saw angels and their glory.

"And these are the names of the holy angels who watch. Uriel, one of the holy angels, who is over the world and over Tartarus. Raphael, one of the holy angels, who is over the spirits of men. Raguel, one of the holy angels who takes vengeance on the world of the luminaries. Michael, one of the holy angels, to wit, he that is set over the best part of mankind and over chaos. Saraqael, one of the holy angels, who is set over the spirits, who sin in the spirit. Gabriel, one of the holy angels, who is over Paradise and the serpents and the Cherubim. Remiel, one of the holy angels, whom God set over those who rise."
- 1 Enoch 20:1-8

Essene proselytes swore to "preserve the books belonging to their sect, and the names of the angels." (Flavius Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Bk 2, Ch 8, Sn 7). The First Book of Enoch was the first piece of Jewish literature to describe a class of angels, the Watchers, who are positively evil and who lead the dead to a place of eternal torment.

"And all the angels shall execute their commandst
And shall seek to hide themselves from the presence of the Great Glory,
And the children of earth shall tremble and quake;
And ye sinners shall be cursed for ever,
And ye shall have no peace."
- 1 Enoch 102:3

The Book of Jubilees "was also known in early times as the Apocalypse of Moses, for it allegedly was written down by Moses at Mount Sinai as an angel dictated to him the histories of days past. (Scholars, though, believe that the work was composed in the second century BC)."
- Zecharia Sitchin, The Stairway to Heaven

"For in his days the angels of the Lord descended upon earth - those who are named The Watchers - that they should instruct the children of men, that they should do judgment and uprightness upon earth."
- The Book of Jubilees

"According to the Book of Jubilees, the Watchers are the sons of god (Genesis 6) sent from heaven to instruct the children of men; they fell after they descended to earth and cohabited with the daughters of men - for which act they were condemned (so legend reports) and became fallen angels. But not all Watchers descended: those that remained are the holy Watchers, and they reside in the 5th Heaven. The evil Watchers dwell either in the 3rd Heaven or in Hell."
- A Dictionary of Angels

"Several fragments with a clear Qumranic cast (4Q286-287, 4Q385-389, 4Q390...) parallel Belial with the angels of MA&+EMOWT ('enmity'), while Jubilees introduces Mastema/Satan into its story of the spirits of the giants, the offspring of the fallen Watchers (Jubilees 10:8,11; see also 11:5,11; 17:16; 18:9,12; 19:28; 48:2,9,12,15). Note that according to Jubilees, the angels of MA&+EMOWT would be the spirits of the giants, the offspring of the angel marriages, one tenth of whom become the servants of Mastema in leading astray and punishing humanity, while 4Q390 makes them the ones responsible for inspiring the sons of Aaron to pollute the Temple through illegitimate marriages and violence."
- David W. Suter, Ioudaios Review, Vol. 3.019, July 1993

"According to the Book of Jubilees, Enoch...testified about the Watchers who had sinned with the daughters of men; he testified against them all." And it was to protect him from the revenge of the sinning angels of the Lord, that 'he was taken from amongst the children of men, and was conducted into the Garden of Eden."
- Zecharia Sitchin, The Stairway to Heaven

"And I Enoch was blessing the Lord of majesty and the King of the ages, and lo! the Watchers called me -Enoch the scribe- and said to me: 'Enoch, thou scribe of righteousness, go, declare to the Watchers of the heaven who have left the high heaven, the holy eternal place, and have defiled themselves with women, and have done as the children of earth do, and have taken unto themselves wives: "Ye have wrought great destruction on the earth: And ye shall have no peace nor forgiveness of sin: and inasmuch as they delight themselves in their children, The murder of their beloved ones shall they see, and over the destruction of their children shall they lament, and shall make supplication unto eternity, but mercy and peace shall ye not attain".'"
- 1 Enoch 10:3-8

As recounted in the Dead Sea Scrolls:
"...'In the days of Jared', two hundred Watchers 'descended' on 'Ardis', the summit of Mount Hermon - a mythical location equated with the triple peak of Jebel esh Sheikh (9,200 feet), placed in the most northerly region of ancient Palestine. In Old Testament times its snowy heights had been revered as sacred by various peoples who inhabited the Holy Land; it was also the probable site of the Transfiguration of Christ when the disciples witnessed their Lord 'transfigured before them'.

"On this mountain the Watchers swear an oath and bind themselves by 'mutual imprecations', apparently knowing full well the consequences their actions will have both for themselves and for humanity as a whole. It is a pact commemorated in the name given to the place of their 'fall', for in Hebrew the word Hermon, or harem, translates as 'curse'. "
- Andrew Collins, From the Ashes of Angels - The Forbidden Legacy of a Fallen Race (1996) pp. 23-24

"In time, each of the 200 took an earthly spouse. These unions produced children of extraordinary size, who quickly devoured the world's food. To satisfy their enormous appetites, the angel-children roamed the earth, slaughtering every species of bird, beast, reptile and fish. Finally, the ravenous creatures turned on one another, stripping flesh from the bones of their fellows and slaking their thirst in rivers of blood. As this wave of destruction washed over the earth, the anguished cries of humankind reached four powerful archangels - Uriel, Raphael, Gabriel, and Michael - who upon orders from God enacted a swift retribution. First Uriel descended to earth to warn Noah of a coming deluge, advising him to prepare an ark to carry his family and a menagerie of creatures to safety. Raphael then fell upon the leader of the Watchers, bound him hand and foot, and thrust him into eternal darkness. Next, Gabriel charged with slaying the dissenters' offspring, encouraged the monstrous angel-children to fight one another. Finally, Michael trussed up the remaining Watchers, forced them to witness the deaths of their progeny, and condemned them to eternal torment. Only then did the heavens open up and wash away the last traces of the destruction that the fallen angels had wrought."
- Cosmic Duality

"Other Watchers stand accused of revealing to mortal kind the knowledge of more scientific arts, such as the knowledge of the clouds, or meteorology; the 'signs of the earth', presumably geodesy and geography; as well as astronomy and the 'signs', or passage, of the celestial bodies, such as the sun and moon. Shemyaza [the leader of the Watchers] is accredited with having taught men 'enchantments, and root-cuttings', a reference to the magical arts...One of their number, Penemue, taught 'the bitter and the sweet', surely a reference to the use of herbs and spices in foods, while instructing men on the use of 'ink and paper', implying that the Watchers introduced the earliest forms of writing. Far more disturbing is Kisdeja, who is said to have shown 'the children of men all the wicked smitings of spirits and demons, and the smitings of the embryo in the womb, that it may pass away'. In other words, he taught women how to abort their babies."
- Andrew Collins, From the Ashes of Angels - The Forbidden Legacy of a Fallen Race (1996) p. 26

"I saw Watchers in my vision, the dream-vision. Two (men) were fighting over me, saying...and holding a great contest over me. I asked them, 'Who are you, that you are thus empo[wered over me?' They answered me, 'We] [have been em]powered and rule over all mankind'. They said to me, 'Which of us do yo[u choose to rule (you)?' I raised my eyes and looked.] [One] of them was terri]fying in his appearance, [like a s]erpent, [his] cl[oa]k many-colored yet very dark...[And I looked again], his appearance, his visage like a viper, and [wearing...] [exceedingly, and all his eyes...]"
"[I replied to him,] 'This [Watcher,] so is he?' He answered me, 'This Wa[tcher...] [and his three names are Belial and Prince of Darkness] and King of Evil.'"
- "Testament of Amram" (4Q535, Manuscript B)

One by one the angels of heaven are appointed by God to proceed against the Watchers and their offspring the Nephilim, described as 'the bastards and the reprobates, and the children of fornication'. Azazel is bound hand and foot, and cast for eternity into the darkness of a desert referred to as Dudael. Upon him are placed 'rough and jagged rocks' and here he shall forever remain until the Day of judgment, when he will be 'cast into the fire' for his sins. For their part in the corruption of mankind, the Watchers are forced to witness the slaughter of their own children before being cast into some kind of heavenly prison, an 'abyss of fire'. Although the Watchers' leader, Shemyaza, is cast into this abyss alongside his brothers, in other versions of the story he undergoes a more dramatic punishment. Since he was tempted by a beautiful mortal maiden named Ishtahar to reveal the Explicit Name of God in exchange for the offer of carnal pleasure, he is to be tied and bound before being made to hang for all eternity between heaven and earth, head down, in the constellation of Orion."
- Andrew Collins, From the Ashes of Angels - The Forbidden Legacy of a Fallen Race (1996) p. 26

"These spirits were locked away in the earth, but Mastema persuaded God to keep out one in ten to tempt humanity until the judgement and to commit all forms of transgression.
"In the Day of Judgement all such spirits will be consigned to eternal torment and humanity renewed in spirit back to the generations of Adam:

'And the days will begin to grow many and increase amongst the children of men till their days draw night to a thousand years ...
And there will be no old man ...For all will be as children and youths.

"The Tree of Life, fragrant and wonderful to behold will be returned to the centre ground, and the New Jerusalem will be built by God - just as later described in Revelation."
- Chris King, "The Apocalyptic Tradition"

"The corruption still left in the world after the imprisonment of the Watchers, and the death of their Nephilim offspring, is to be swept away by a series of global catastrophes, ending in the Great Flood so familiar within biblical traditions. In a separate account of the plight of the Nephilim, this mass-destruction is seen in terms of an all-encompassing conflagration sent by the angels of heaven in the form of 'fire, naphtha and brimstone'. No one will survive these cataclysms of fire and water save for the 'seed' of Noah, from whose line will come the future human race."
- Andrew Collins, From the Ashes of Angels - The Forbidden Legacy of a Fallen Race (1996) p. 28

"And now, the giants, who are produced from the spirits and flesh, shall be called evil spirits upon the earth, and on the earth shall be their dwelling. Evil spirits have proceeded from their bodies; because they are born from men and from the holy Watchers is their beginning and primal origin; they shall be evil spirits on earth, and evil spirits shall they be called. [As for the spirits of heaven, in heaven shall be their dwelling, but as for the spirits of the earth which were born upon the earth, on the earth shall be their dwelling.] And the spirits of the giants afflict, oppress, destroy, attack, do battle, and work destruction on the earth, and cause trouble: they take no food, but nevertheless hunger and thirst, and cause offenses. And these spirits shall rise up against the children of men and against the women, because they have proceeded from them."
- 1 Enoch 8-12

"The explanation of this myth, which has been a stumbling block to theologians, may be the arrival in Palestine of tall, barabarous Hebrew herdsmen early in the second millenium B.C., and their exposure, by marriage, to Asianic civilization. 'Sons of El' in this sense would mean the 'cattle-owning worshipper of the Semite Bull-god El'; 'Daughters of Adam' would mean 'women of the soil' (adama), namely, the Goddess- worshipping Canaanite agriculturists, notorious for their orgies and premarital prostitution. If so, this historical event has been tangled with the Ugaritic myth how El seduced two mortal women and fathered divine sons on them, namely Shahar ('Dawn') and Shalem ('Perfect'). Shahar appears as a winged deity in Psalm CXXXIX:9, and his son, according to Isaiah XIV:12, was the fallen angel Helel. Unions between gods and mortals, that is to say between kings or queens and commoners, occur frequently in Mediterranean and Middle Eastern myth. Since later Judaism rejected all deities but its own transcendental God, and since He never married or consorted with any female whatsoever, Rabbi Shimon ben Yohai in Genesis Rabba felt obliged to curse all who read 'Sons of God' in the Ugartic sense. Clearly, such an interperetation was still current in the second century A.D., and lapsed only when Bene Elohim meant 'God' and Judge,' the theory being that when a duly appointed magistrate tried a case, the Spirit of El posessed him: 'I have said, ye are gods.' (Psalm LXXXII:6)"
- Robert Graves and Raphael Patai, Hebrew Myths: The Book of Genesis

Jewish religious authorities, concerned that the growing worship of angels would be a threat to the belief in one God, excised works like those of the Books of Enoch and the Book of Jubilees from canonical literature. These books are now part of what is known as the Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha.
The mysterious "egregors" of later magical tradition are linguistically derived from the Watchers and indicate the continuation of an underground stream of knowledge.

The Sefirot

"Tree of Life" from the Latin translation of Joseph Gikatilla's Gates of Light (1516)

The Sefirot

The Tree of Life

(1) The Ten Spheres

"And the Lord God said, 'Behold, the man is become as one of us, to know good and evil: and now, lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live for ever:'
Therefore the Lord God sent him forth from the garden of Eden, to till the ground from whence he was taken.
So he drove out the man; and he placed at the East of the garden of Eden cherubims and a flaming sword which turned every way, to keep the way of the tree of life."
- Genesis 3:23-25

Tree of Life "The Tree of Life was a Babylonian concept, and as represented in carvings it does not look particularly like a tree at all. It was shown as a series of leafy rosettes, arranged and construction in a strange [lattice] pattern...To the Babylonians, it was a tree with magical fruit, which could only be picked by the gods. Dire consequences befell any mortal who dared to pluck form its. The tree found its way into the Hebrew legend of Adam and Eve...which is heavily loaded with allusions of the Ancient of Days. Recent works on the Kabbalah make extensive use of this tree. Ten parts or attributes of the Ancient of Days are identified with ten of the rosettes..."
- George Sassoon and Rodney Dale, The Manna Machine

"An important early text used in that study was the Sefer Yetsirah (Book of Creation), which appeared sometime between the third and sixth centuries AD. In its pages, initiates discovered an expanded theory of the creation of the universe."
- Ancient Wisdom and Secret Sects

"According to the Sefer Yezira, the spiritual world consisted of ten spheres, the Sefirot is a term related to the Hebrew word Sappir, loosely translated as 'sapphire' and interpreted as the radiance of God.) Each of the sefirot represented a different force or aspect of God, such as love, power, or understanding. These aspects were said to have emanated, or unfolded from God, and as the sefirot embodied all aspects of creation, generation, and decay, they represented the universe itself unfolding."
- Ancient Wisdom and Secret Sects

"The ten circles are known as sephiroth, the plural of sephira, meaning a number. They are interconnected in various ways....Each connection is identified with a letter of the Hebrew alphabet, and with one of the twenty-two trumps major of the Tarot, the pack of cards used by some fortune tellers. It is believed that the sephiroth exercise a mystical influence on one another via these connections.
- George Sassoon and Rodney Dale, The Manna Machine

The ten spheres are: "the spirit, air, water, fire, the four cardinal points of the compass, height and depth. These ten are all emanations from God: the crown, the wisdom, the intelligence, the love, the power, the compassion, the steadfastness, the majesty, the foundation and the kingdom. They are linked together as a vital organism, like a tree whose root is the Infinite, with the kingdom as the trunk, the foundation as the point from which the branches begin to spread, the compassion (or beauty) at the center and the crown at the top. They are the names which God gave to Himself and which make up the one great Name."
- John Ferguson, An Illustrated Encyclopaedia of Mysticism and the Mystery Religions


The Sefirot

"The ten sephirot were arranged in a rigid hierarchy, and each lower sephirah grew out of the one immediately above; that is, the second ranking sephirah grew out of the first, the third out of the second, etc. Thus the first sephirah had all the powers of the sephirot under him; the second had its own power plus all the powers of the succeeding eight, and so on. They were:
1. Kether (Crown), also called the Simple Point, because this initial and paramount sephirah was unknown and all-embracing. Kether was known familiar as the Old One, the Ancient of Days (from Daniel 7:9), the White head, or the Long Face.
2. Hochmah (Wisdom) was also known as Aba (Father) and was the masculine outgrowth of the Ancient One.
3. Binah (Understanding or Intelligence), the highest feminine emanation in the order of sephirot, also known as Ima (Mother).
4. Hesed (Kindness) is also called Gedulah (Greatness) and is masculine.
5. Geburah (Power) is also called Din (Justice) and is feminine.
6. Tipheret (Glory or Beauty) [also called Rahamin] is both masculine and feminine because it is a combination of Hesed and Geburah.
7. Netzah (Firmness, Might, Victory) is masculine.
8. Hod (Splendor) is feminine.
9. Yesod (Foundation) combines Netzah and Hod.
10. Malkut (Kingdom) has no special attributes but is a kind of funnel through which the qualities of the upper nine sephirot are transmitted to the physical world. It is therefore also called Shechinah, the Spirit of God."

"The first nine sephirot were grouped in threes, each triad including a masculine element, a feminine element, and a combining element. The first three sephirot represented the world of thought; the second, the world of emotions and morals; the third, the world of nature. The tenth sephirah, Malkut, existed alone as the harmony of the other nine.
"This triune was paralleled by the Kaballists' version of the three-part soul - an idea expressed earlier by Plato, Aristotle, the Bible, and the Talmud. The soul called Neshamah represented the intellect and corresponded to the first three sephirot. The soul called Ruah represented the emotion and corresponded to the Hesed-Geburah-Tipheret triad. The soul called Nefesh represented man's animal nature and corresponded to the lowest triad of sephirot."
- Harry Gersh, The Sacred Books of the Jews

"...The 'true' universe consists of the En Sof (literally the infinite or the incomprehensible), which is the spiritual universe. The spiritual universe is inseparable from God, and has no beginning and no end (unlike the physical universe). God has many characteristics, but they can be logically separated into ten groupings. When these characteristics are all present in a particular 'region,' that region is perfect. However, God has several times removed certain characteristics from a point in the En Sof (the act is called tzimtzum , contraction) thus creating a point of imperfection wherein a physical universe can exist.
Our current universe is not believed to be the first, but it may be the longest-lived. It was created by removing Law from a point and filling the 'vacuum' with Kindness. This was necessary for it was God's desire to give Man free will or the power to decide good or evil, and this would not be possible if Divine Law permeated the universe. The act of creation itself was accomplished through ten emanations (esher sephirot in Hebrew ) .... First, Keter (Crown) was emanated as a projection of En Sof into the physical universe. From this sphere of emanation came Khokhmah (Intelligence), called the father."
- Simcha Kuritzky, "Kabbalistic Magic" Part I

(2) Da'ath

Da'ath is "the secret sphere of Knowledge on the cosmic tree."
- Perle Epstein, Kabbalah - The Way of the Jewish Mystic

"...The essential and incorruptible unity of the Sefiroth is revealed not only by their reciprocal 'relationships', which are concentrated in the 'middle pillar' [of the Tree], but also by their common light which 'circulated' in the 'channels' of these relationships and is called da'ath, 'knowledge'. This refers to the omniscience or universal consciousness of God which, properly speaking, is not a Sefirah, but the cognitive presence of the One in each of them."
- Leo Schaya, The Universal Meaning of the Kabbalah

"And by da'ath the rooms [or spiritual 'receptivities'] are filled with all precious and pleasant [Sephirothic] riches."
- Proverbs 24:5

Da'ath: the mysterious knowledge, the great abyss

"Unlike the sephirah which represent states of mind rather than static placements, and the paths of lessons learned to move from one sephirah or concept to another, Da'ath is not represented upon the Qabalah tree. It is placed below the three supernal sephirah - Kether (the crown), Binah (+) and Chokmah (-). The polarities of positive and negative alternate up and down the tree and cause the energies to circulate as the universal input is pulled downward through the tree supernal sephirah to Da'ath. In this void between the higher and the lower the hither to formless energy of the universe takes on material shape by crystallization. Here is the highest point of the human mind: the home of the brainstorm or creative energy that is brought into manifestation on the earthly plain. As the sand passes through the narrow center of the hour glass, so does knowledge incoming from the universe pass into our consciousness in the machinery of Da'ath. Here is the ultimate home of intuitive knowledge from which all concepts stem.

"When working with the tree either to call down the greater knowledge of the superhuman universe and its infinite organization, or to bring our self up the tree from the lower sephirah for spiritual upliftment and higher perspective, all energy must pass through Da'ath on its way into matter or disintegration into the hypertext of the universe. Thus the term mysterious knowledge is given to Da'ath where wisdom (Chokmah) is combined with understanding (Binah) and melded to the material level through the influence of Tiphareth (sixth sephirah: balanced harmony), which pervades one's soul with the concealed light of illumination of consciousness."

Suggested reading: The Mystical Qabalah, by Dion Fortune: Aquarian Thorsons: imprint Harper Collins
- Special commentary by Rebecca Salem

In the 17th century, Nathan of Gaza, "circulated a curious document, the Sepher ha-Sha'are ha-Daath. He described this as a commentary on two chapters of the Book of the Alhazred, an ancient history of the world. The title means the "Book of the Gates of Knowledge". The word for knowledge, da'ath, has a technical meaning. When the Bible was translated into Greek, the word da'ath was translated as gnosis. Da'ath has a very peculiar status in Kabbalah, being a kind of non-existent, a nothingness. In modern Hermetic Kabbalah it is sometimes represented a hole or gate into an abyss of consciousness. Crowley's experiments with the Call of the Thirty Aethyrs led him into this abyss."
- Colin Low, Necronomicon FAQ
(Compiled from The Book of the Arab, by Justin Geoffry, Starry Wisdom Press, 1979)

"When Malkuth ['Kingdom'] 'fell' out of the Garden of Eden it left behind a 'hole' in the fabric of the Tree, and this 'hole', located in the centre of the Abyss, is called Da'ath, or Knowledge. Da'ath is not a sephira; it is a hole."
- Colin Low, "Notes on the Kabbalah"

"DA'ATH - Knowledge - is not a Sephira. It is not on the Tree of Life: that is, there is in reality no such thing....Da'ath is the crown of the Ruach, the Intellect; and its place is in the Abyss. That is it breaks into pieces immediately it is examined."
- Aleister Crowley, Little Essays Toward Truth

"Where the word [;Da'ath] appears in Genesis it is translated into Greek as 'gnosis'. When Adam knew Eve, the word used was based on the same verb root as the word Da'ath. In traditional Kabbalah Da'ath never made it as a proper sephiroth (as Sepher Yetzirah puts it, there could only be "ten and not nine; ten and not eleven", and so the eleventh quality on the kabbalistic Tree of Life has developed a mystique that comes from being unlike the others. As the sephiroth represent emantations of the divine in creation, Da'ath has progressively taken on the quality of an anti-emanation. It is difficult to place exactly in time the point at which this attribution began to find real coherence. In a book on Kabbalah published in 1965 the author Gareth Knight attributes to Da'ath the Roman god Janus, the two-faced god of portals who is forever looking two ways. However, some of the most vivid depictions of Da'ath as gateway were introduced in the mid 1970s in the writings of the British magician (and joint biographer of Crowley) Kenneth Grant."
- Colin Low, "Dr. John Dee, the Necronomicon & the Cleansing of the World - A Gnostic Trail"

"Da'ath has a dual aspect; on one hand it is our knowledge of the world of appearance, the body of facts which constitute our beliefs and prop up the illusion of identity and ego and separateness. On the other hand it is revelation, objective knowledge, what is often referred to as gnosis. The transition between the knowledge of the world of appearance and revelation entails the experience of the abyss, the abolition of the sense of ego, the negation of identity. From within the abyss any identity is possible. It is chaos, unformed. It contains, as it were, the seeds of identity. It is from this point that an infinity of gates open, each one a gateway to a mode of being. These are what Nathan is referring to as the "Gates of Knowledge."
- Colin Low, Necronomicon FAQ
(Compiled from The Book of the Arab, by Justin Geoffry, Starry Wisdom Press, 1979)


The Ancient of Days (detail)
William Blake, 1794

The Ancient of Days

"According to Genesis 1:27, the human being is created in the image of God. The sefirot are the divine original of that image. As Primordial Adam, they are the mythical paragon of the human being, our archetypal nature. The human race has lost this nature, but if one were to purify himself, he would reconnect with the sefirotand become a vessel for them. This is what the Patriarchs attained and, to a greater degree, Moses."
- Arthur Green in the Preface to the Zohar (Daniel Chana Matt Editor)

"The sefirot[emanation of God] below Keter [the top skull], from Hokhmah to Yesod, are referred to as the Impatient One (Ze'eir Appin; literally, 'short-face', but meaning 'short-tempered, impatient'; cf. Proverbs 14:17) . Keter, the White Head, the highest sefirah, is pure compassion and therefore described as Arikh Anpin, 'long-faced, long-suffering, slow to anger'; cf. Exodus 34:6. The lower sefirotare characterized by a tension between different aspects of the divine: right and left, love and rigor. Relative to Keter, they are impatient."
"Looking back to His source, the Impatient One is soothed and manifests the compassion overflowing from Keter."
- Notes on the Zohar (Daniel Chana Matt Editor)

"When the Blessed Holy One is aroused to delight Himself with the righteous, the Face of the Ancient of Days shines into the face of the Impatient One. Its Forehead is revealed and shines to this forehead. Then it is called 'a time of favor' (Psalms 69:14). Whenever Judgment looms and the forehead of the Impatient One is revealed, the Forehead of the Ancient of Ancients is revealed; Judgment subsides and is not executed."
- Idra Rabba, Zohar 3:136b

"When the desire arose in the the Will of the White Head to manifest Its Glory,
It arrayed, prepared, and generated from the Blinding Flash
one spark, radiating in 370 directions.
The spark stood still.
A pure aura emerged whirling and breathed upon the spark.
The spark congealed and one hard skull emerged, emanating to four sides.
Surrounded by this pure aura, the spark was contained and absorbed.
Completely absorbed, you think?
No, secreted within.
That is how this skull emanated to its sides.
This aura is the secret of secrets of the Ancient of Days.
Through the breath hidden in this skull fire emanated on one side, and air on the other, with the pure aura standing over this side and pure fire over the other.
What is a fire doing here?
It is not fire, but the spark surrounded by the pure aura illuminates 270 worlds,
and from its side, Judgment comes into being.
That is why this skull is called the Hard Skull."
- Zohar

the Will of the White Head
"The White Head is keter, who is pure love and compassion, untainted by judgment...Keter is often called Will."
"The hair on His head was like clean wool."
- Daniel 7:9

the blinding flash
"Aramaic, bozina de-quardinuta/. This is the Zohar's name for the first impulse of emanation proceeding for Ein Sof, the Infinite, through Keter
"The flash directs the entire process of emanation, providing its rhythm and measure. The goal of meditation is to attain this flash and participate in the flow of being."
one spark
"Aramaic, bad nizoza. This is the first point: Hokhmah, Wisdom."
one hard skull
"Binah ["Understanding"], who proceeds from the spark of Hokhmah."
four sides
"The four sides (north, south, east, and west) symbolize four sefirotthat emanate from Binah: Din [Power], Hesed [Love], Tif'eret [Beauty], and Shekbinah [Presence]."
Surrounded by this pure aura
"Hokhmah is absorbed by its source. It does not dissolve there but rather remains hidden and transmits the power of further emanation to Binah."
the breath
"breathed by the aura through the spark of Hokhmah into the skull of Binah."
"Din, (Gevurah), the sefirah of Judgment."
"Hesed, Love."
270 worlds Judgment
"Binah, the product of the spark of Hokhmah, is the compassionate Divine Mother. However, She includes within Herself the roots of Judgment and gives birth to Din, the sefirah of Judgment. 270 may be an allusion to ra, 'evil', which has the numerical equivalent of 270."
- Notes on the Zohar (Daniel Chana Matt Editor)

"Spiritual and psychological wholeness is achieved by meditating on the qualities of each sefirah, by imitating and integrating the attributes of God. The path is not easy. Divine will can be harsh: Abraham was commanded to sacrifice Isaac in order to balance love with rigor. From the Other Side, demonic forces threaten and seduce."
"The ecstasy of sefirotic contemplation, however seems reserved mostly for souls who have departed this world or for the high-priest on the Day of Atonement. Souls of the living who succeed in prayer delight in palaces below Shekbinah/ [the opening to the Divine]. If especially devout, they may be raised to the level of Yesod or attain a sefirotic vision, but the highest sefirot are considered unapproachable. In fact the Zohar forbids contemplation of Binah and what lies beyond Her."
- Arthur Green in the Preface to the Zohar (Daniel Chana Matt Editor)

The Zohar

Anotated Zohar

The Zohar

"The chief expression of the Kabbalah is a work know as the Zohar ('Splendor') which was written as a commentary on the Pentateuch. Though it is ascribed to a rabbi of the second century, the work, in the form in which circulated in the last part of the thirteenth century A.D. was composed only a little earlier than then. Since Kabbalism originated in Europe, chiefly in Provence and Spain, the book can probably be ascribed to Moses de Leon, a native of Granada, who died in 1305."
- Ninian Smart, The Religious Experience of Mankind

"When Moses of Leon sat down to write the Zohar, he had to do it in Aramaic He was claiming that it was a transcript of an ancient manuscript which he had acquired, so he had to use the language of a much earlier period....He had learnt the ancient traditions in Ladino, a Spanish-type language spoken by the Jews of Spain and Portugal, and had to translate them; as a result, there are many Spanish words in the text, and some from other languages as well."
- George Sassoon and Rodney Dale, The Manna Machine

"The Zohar is a mystical novel based on the Torah. Its characters include Rabbi Shim'on and his Comrades, biblical figures, and the sefirot, the various aspects of God's personality."
"Gershom Scholem...sifted the writings of Kabbalists, critics, and scholars. He examined the Zohar'/s language, terminology, ideas, and symbolism in the context of early Kabbalah and medieval Hebrew thought and literature. He explored the literary structure of the Zohar, its fictional format, and historical allusions. [In 1925] Scholem demonstrated that the peculiar Aramaic was constructed from literary sources, particularly the Babylonian Talmud and Targum Onqelos; it contains grammatical errors and medieval Hebraisms. The mystical theosophy of the work proved to be pure thirteenth-century Kabbalah, which derived from medieval Jewish Neoplatonism and Gnosticism."

"Parts of the Zohar may have been composed by automatic writing, a technique that is well attested in the history of mystical literature. Joseph Abulafia, an acquaintance of Moses, possessed 'the writing name' (shem ha-kotev), a holy name that focuses meditation and placed one in a trance in which automatic writings were produced."
"The Zohar's style of commentary embraces the precision of textual analysis and the abandon of contemplative fantasy. Its creativity is motivated both consciously and unconsciously."
- Arthur Green in the Preface to the Zohar (Daniel Chana Matt Editor)

"This manuscript, he [Moses of Leon] said, contained the teachings of a well-known Rabbi, Simon bar Yochai, who lived in about +200. Moses of Leon claimed to have edited the manuscript, and to be publishing it for the first time.....The Zohar was an immediate success. Hand-written copies circulated widely until the invention of printing, and many of them still exist.....After Moses' death, his wife admitted that there had been no manuscript; he had invented the whole story as a device to gain publicity for the book."
"It is clear from the Zohar that Moses of Leon must have been a member of a society known as the Reapers of the Holy Field. there were many such societies, whose purpose was to pass on the secret, traditional knowledge of the Jews, the Oral Law, which was said to have been given by the Lord to Moses on the mountain."
"Modern Masons, like ancient Reapers, spend much time memorizing details of the Ancient of Days."
- George Sassoon and Rodney Dale, The Manna Machine

In the first of the Daniel stories (chapter 7), "Daniel sees four monstrous beasts (four successive kingdoms in Asia), the last of which (Alexander's heirs) is sprouting an eleventh horn (King Antiochus IV). This eleven-horned beast is slain by a deeply significant figure, the 'Ancient of Days', the first passage in scripture [168/7 BC] which envisages God as old and white-haired."
- Robin Lane Fox, The Unauthorized Version

"The Reapers of the Field are the Comrades, masters of this wisdom, because Malkbut Shekhinab [the feminine Divine Presence], is called the Apple Field, and She grows sprouts of secrets and new flowerings of Torah. Those who constantly create new interpretations of Torah are harvesting Her."
- Moses Cordovero, Or ha-Hammab

"Come and see:
Every single day, dew trickles down from the Holy Ancient One to the Impatient One,
and the Orchard of Holy Apple Trees is blessed.
Some of the dew flows to those below;
holy angels are nourished by it, each according to his diet, as it is written: '
A human ate angel bread' (Psalms 78:25)
Israel ate of that food in the desert.

Rabbi Shim'on said 'Some people are nourished by it even now!
Who are they?
The Comrades, who engage Torah day and night.
Do you think they are nourished by that very food?
No, by something like that very food; two balancing one."
- Zohar (Daniel Chana Matt Editor)

the Orchard of Holy Apple Trees Shekhinah . The apple trees are the sefirot from Hesed to Yesod, which fill Her. The image originates in the Talmud as a midrashic comment on Genesis 27:27: 'as the fragrance of a field that YHVH has blessed'."
angel bread Hebrew, lebem ahhirim, 'bread of powerful beings'. The verse describes the manna from heaven. In Talmud, Yoma 75b Rabbi Akiva takes the phrase to mean 'bread that the ministering angels eat'. The Zohar adopts this view and sees the manna as a product of divine emanation..."
The Comrades Aramaic, havrayya, 'companions, colleagues, comrades'; the circle of rabbis who gather around Rabbi Shim'on son of Yohai, the master. They constantly engage Torah, searching for her mystical secrets"
two balancing one The mystical Comrades, striving to attain wisdom, are nourished from the sefirah of Wisdom, Hokhmah, which is higher than heaven (Tif'eret), the source of manna...The food of the Comrades is twice as holy as manna!".
- Notes on the Zohar (Daniel Chana Matt Editor)

"The learned commentators of the Talmud, the Rabbis of the synagogue, explain that the garden of delight, in which those four personages are made to enter, is but that mysterious science, the most terrible of sciences for weak intellects, which it leads to insanity."
- A. Franck, Kabbalah

The Manna Machine

(1) The Ancient of Days

In the Zohar, two engineers, George Sassoon and Rodney Dale, "found a detailed physical description of a god named the 'Ancient of Days'. The androgynous god consisted of a male part and a female part, which is quite typical of mystery religions. What struck Sassoon and Dale as truly odd about the god was the fact that it appeared to be a god that could be taken to pieces and reassembled."
- Brad Steiger, Worlds Before Our Own

"As described in the texts, the Ancient of Days is a complicated physical structure. Some people think that it may have been an intricately-carved idol, captured from a non-Jewish people, which was kept secret because the Jews did not allow idol worship; others dismiss the whole thing as a fanciful invention."
- George Sassoon and Rodney Dale, The Manna Machine

"The minute details of this procedure caused the two scientists to 'look closely at the texts, uncluttered by peripheral verbiage, and to decide that there was a high probability that they describe not a god but a machine in anthropomorphic terms.'"
- Brad Steiger, Worlds Before Our Own

"I beheld till the thrones were cast down, and the Ancient of Days did sit, whose garment was white as snow, and the hair of is head was like pure wool: his throne was like the fiery flame, and his wheels as burning fire. A fiery stream issued and came forth from him...and behold, one like the son of man came with the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of Days."
- Daniel, 7:9ff

"But what are these wheels? The word used in the Aramaic text of Daniel is GLGLVHI (galgalohi) - his wheels. However, in the Zohar, 'his skulls' is GVLGLVHI (golgalohi), and it sometimes appears without the first 'V', making it identical with the 'wheels' of Daniel. It seems fairly likely, then, that Daniel is taking about skulls not wheels; and in describing his 'vision', he is hinting to those in the know that he possesses the secret knowledge."

"In Aramaic, the title [Ancient of Days] is attik yomin (OThIQ IVMIN), and in Hebrew attik yomim (OThIQ IMIM). The first word comes from the word attak (OThQ), to remove or transport; it is used several times in the Bible, mostly with that meaning. The form attik would then mean 'transporting' or possibly ' that which is transported'."
"The second word in the title is IVMIN or IMIM, supposed to mean '(of the) days'. Now the word IVM, pronounced 'yom', does mean 'day'...But there is another word in Hebrew, IM, pronounced 'yam'. This means 'sea'. In the plural, both words are spelt the same, IMIM. If pronounced 'yomim', this means days, and if 'yamim', seas. From this, we discover that OThIQ IMIM can mean Ancient of Days, but is could also mean Transportable One of the Seas..."
"In the Bible, there are various seas, and the word is also used for what we could called lakes such as the Sea of Galilee. There is also the great Sea, yam rav in Hebrew, the name given to the Mediterranean, which was the largest body of water known to the ancient Israelites. Yam rav was also the 'great sea' of bronze which stood in front of Solomon's Temple (2 Chronicles 4:2ff). This was a large vessel filled with water and used for purification rituals. It appears, therefore, that the word 'sea' in Hebrew can also mean 'a large vessel for containing liquids', or in modern terms, a tank."
- George Sassoon and Rodney Dale, The Manna Machine

"The Ancient of Days consisted principally of three 'skulls', an outer one which contained two others inside it, placed one above the other. In the middle of this arrangement was the 'cardinal lamp', which shone with 'a brightness to exceed all brightnesses'. It has a 'beard', the 'hairs' of which grow out of one part of its 'face' and back in again at other places; there is no mention of a body, but there is a 'strong right arm', there are six feet; and in between them there are two testicles, and a penis. A substance known variously as the 'dew', the 'oil of great goodness' and other terms, ran down from the upper parts of this object, to be stored in the 'testicles' and finally discharged from the 'penis'."
- George Sassoon, "The Ancient of Days: Deity or Manna-Machine"

"According to the traditions, the Ancient One had but a single eye, right in the middle of his head, which shone with a blinding brightness, while the Small-faced One had three eyes, of different colors, which did not shine with their own light. There was no easy way in which the rabbis could reconcile these descriptions with a god-being of reasonably human appearance, and so the texts are full of extraordinary arguments."
- George Sassoon and Rodney Dale, The Manna Machine

"This brain is hollowed out, and (the eye) lights up three whitenesses above the eye."
- Lesser Holy Assembly 116

"The upper eye is also known as the Eye of Providence, and under this name it is frequently mentioned in Masonic rituals."
- George Sassoon and Rodney Dale, The Manna Machine

(2) The Dew Still

"The head which is incomprehensible is secret in secret. But it hath been formed and prepared in the likeness of a cranium, and is filled with the crystalline dew."
- The Book of Concealed Mystery

"Its [the manna's] color was like the color of crystal."
- Numbers 11:7

"When Sassoon and Dale read in one of the texts such passages as the following, they believed the words to be describing a machine for making manna: 'Into the skull...distills the dew from the white head...and from this dew they grind the manna...and the manna did not appear to be derived from this dew except at one time: the time when Israel was wandering in the desert.' Sassoon and Dale asumed that the Ark of the Covenant included the manna machine..."
- Brad Steiger, Worlds Before Our Own

"...The top skull is white. In it there is no beginning or end. The hollow thing of its juices is extended and is made to flow....From this follow thing for juice of the white skull the dew falls every day into the small-faced one....And his head is filled, and from the small-faced one it falls....The Ancient Holy One is secret and hidden. And the upper wisdom is concealed in the skull which is found [i.e. can be seen] and from this into that the Ancient One is not opened [i.e. there is no passage visible]. And the head is not single because it is the top of the whole head. The upper wisdom is inside the head: it is concealed and is called the upper brain, the concealed brain, the brain that appeases and is quiet. And there is no [man] that knows it....
"Three heads are hollowed out: this inside that and this above the other. One head is wisdom; it is concealed from that which is covered. This wisdom is concealed; it is the top of all...[heads of the other wisdoms]. The upper head is the Ancient and Holy One, the most concealed of all concealed ones. It is the top of the whole head, the head which is not a head [not an ordinary one], and is not known. And because of this, the Ancient Holy One is called 'nothing'. And all those hairs and all those cords from the brain are concealed, are all smooth in the carrier. And all of the neck is not seen....There is one path that flows in the division of the hairs from the brain..."
- HADRA ZVTA QDIShA (Lesser Holy Assembly) Verses 51-73
from Kabbalah Denudata (1644)

"Sassoon and Dale feel certain that other parts of the exoteric texts indicate that the 'hairs' and 'cords' are wires and pipes. 'Wisdom,' they conclude, is a liquid utilized in the process of manufacturing manna."
- Brad Steiger, Worlds Before Our Own

"From the top of the skull it starts and is extended into the whole of the body, from its breast and from its arms, and from the whole. To his buttocks is attached the spark of the cardinal lamp, and it lights up. And a skull goes out which is concealed from all sides. And the shiner descends from the two brains hollowed out in it [the skull]. And it [the shiner] is attached in the direction of the male part..."
- HADRA ZVTA QDIShA (Lesser Holy Assembly) 709

"At the top is a dew-still: a refrigerated, corrugated surface over which air is drawn, from which water condenses. This is fed to a container in the center of which is a powerful light-source for irradiating a culture, possibly of Chlorella-type algae. There are dozens of strains of Chlorella, and the balance of protein, carbohydrate, and fat in a chosen strain can be varied by choosing the appropriate conditions of growth for the culture.
"This algal culture circulates through pipes which permit an exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide with the atmosphere, and also dissipate heat. The Chlorella sludge is drawn off into another vessel where it is treated so that the starch is partially hydrolyzed to maltose, which is then burnt slightly to give the honey-and-wafers flavor....The dried material is then fed to two vessels. One is emptied daily to provide the day's supply, and the other fills slowly during the week so that two days' supply is available on the eve of the Sabbath...."
- George Sassoon and Rodney Dale, New Scientist, April 1, '76

"And all of the stream (of blessing) that flows from all of the body is gathered there, into those that are called the hosts...and that flow, after it is collected there, it stays there, and then goes to the holly foundation. It is all white, and therefore it is called mercy. And this mercy enters the Holy of Holies..."
- HADRA ZVTA QDIShA (Lesser Holy Assembly) 761

"And furthermore, the body is extended into two legs [or irrigations]. And between them they contain two kidneys, two masculine testicles [literally eggs]. All the oil and the greatness and the masculine force from the whole body are gathered into them...and therefore they are called the 'hosts'; and they are called 'Victory' and 'Glory'....Victory and Glory are the hosts, and therefore (we get the name) 'Lord of Hosts'. The masculine penis is the end of the whole body, and it is called the 'foundation'."
- - HADRA ZVTA QDIShA (Lesser Holy Assembly) 740

"The two hosts, then Victory and Glory, the manna storage tanks, were thought of as testicles; and the manna discharge nozzle, the penis, was the foundation." "The names of the testicles were Victory and Gory, in Hebrew, NTzCh (Netzach) and HVD (Hod)...The dictionary tells us that NTzCh also means 'juice' or 'essence' in Hebrew, and it is used in the Bible (Isaiah 63:3), with the meaning of grape-juice."
- George Sassoon and Rodney Dale, The Manna Machine

(3) Operation and Maintenance

"The name of our source-book is the Zohar from ZHR, to illuminate. Properly, the book should be called The Book of the Illumination. This may refer to the illumination of the soul of the reader, in a religious sense - but it might equally well mean the lighting-up of the Ancient of Days, and its restoration to working order."
- George Sassoon and Rodney Dale, The Manna Machine

"Tradition: at the time when Israel is crying out in distress, then the hairs are uncovering from over the ears, so that the voice can go into the ears, into that tube that drips from the brain, and it collects in the brain. And it goes out into the tubes of the nose. And the nose is shortened and becomes hot, and fire and smoke go out form those tubes, and all the strengths are excited, and it makes revenges. But before the fire and smoke go out form those tubes, that voice goes upwards, and influences the top of the brain, and the two tears flow down for the eyes. And the smoke and the fire go out from the perforations (of the nose), by (the action of) that voice..."
- Greater Holy Assembly 716

"Every seven days [on the Sabbath] , the machine was carefully taken apart and cleaned, with all the parts lovingly protected from dust and dirt. The, even more carefully, it was reassembled, culminating in the final plugging together of the two major components, a sexual act in itself. It was then switched on, and the various processes would start in order. First, the dew would run down from the brain, then the 'great sea' would fill, with the 'oil of great goodness' running through the 'beard'. Then the 'tears' would run down from the 'eyes', adding seed and fertilizer, and finally the 'eye of providence' would light up with a blinding brightness. There would then follow a long period of waiting, during which the plants multiplied and were drawn off and processed, before the testicles started to fill. At long last, after many hours of anxious preparation, the manna would flow. Small wonder that the whole process was seen as some kind of cosmic copulation."
- George Sassoon and Rodney Dale, The Manna Machine

"And Moses speaks these words [IHVH, IHVH] in the place of judgment, that he may make measure of mercies go down from the Ancient Holy One to the Small-faced One. For they teach that so great was the power of Moses, that he made the measure of mercies to go down to the lower part."
- Greater Holy Assembly 696

"..Moses entered the Holy of Holies, said the Name twice, and down came the measures of manna....The failure of the manna coincided with the death of Moses."
- George Sassoon and Rodney Dale, The Manna Machine

"And the manna did not appear to be derived from this dew except at one time; the time when Israel was wandering in the desert. And then the Ancient One of All fed them from this place. But afterwards, it was not found."
- - HADRA ZVTA QDIShA (Lesser Holy Assembly) 440

"Who shall give us flesh to eat? We remember the fish, which we did eat in Egypt freely; the cucumbers and the melons, and the leeks, and the onions, and the garlic: but now our soul is dried away: and there is noting at all beside this mana before our eyes...and the people went about, and gathered it, and ground it in mills, or beat it in a mortar, and baked it in pans, and make cakes of it: and the taste thereof was as the taste of fresh oil."
- Numbers 11:4ff

"And the manna ceased on the morrow after they had eaten of the old corn of the land; neither had the children of Israel manna any more; but they did eat of the fruit of the land of Canaan that year."
- Joshua 5:12

"How good and pleasant it is when brothers live together in unity!
It is like precious oil poured on the head, running down on the beard, running down on Aaron's beard, down upon the collar of his robes.
It is as if the dew of Hermon were falling on Mount Zion. For there the LORD bestows his blessing, even life forevermore."
- Psalm 133 A song of ascents. Of David.

"This psalm is...quoted in the manna-machine texts of the Zohar (GHA 321, LHA 677). The latter passage is in connection with the nine parts of the beard of the Small-faced One: ' ... the beard is seen as strong power (GIBR ThQIP), as strong Masters of the Juices of the inside parts (GIBR MARI NTzCh QRBIN). Into this beard there flows the oil of goodness from the Ancient Concealed One, as it is said (Ps. 133:2) 'Like the precious ointment upon the head, that ran down the beard, even Aaron's beard'.
"Clearly the reference is to the annual Yom Kippur ritual of the fruitless attempts to reboot the manna-machine, with the High Priest pouring oil all over himself."
- George Sassoon (private correspondence)

Psalm 133 was read 'Ecce quam bonum et quam jucundum' during the ritual of admission into the Knights Templar, an order which supposedly sought the lost Ark of the Covenant.

"And Moses said unto Aaron, take a pot, and put an omer full of manna therein, and lay it up before the Lord, to be kept for our generations...So Aaron laid it up before the [Ark of] Testimony, to be kept."
- Exodus 16:33

"After its final failure, the manna-machine was taken to a shrine at Shiloh, where it no longer occupied a central position in the life of Israel. However, a dedicated band of priests continued to tend it....They could devote their time to the study of the machine; they probably still received enough sacrificial offerings to live in reasonable style. They were the founders of the society known as the Reapers of the Holy Field, and the original Lords of Measurements of the Zohar."
- George Sassoon and Rodney Dale, The Manna Machine

"[The nose] and also all the parts of the Ancient of Days are seen, and they are not seen; they are seen by the Lords of Measurements, but they are not seen by anyone else."
- Greater Holy Assembly 208

(4) The Short Face (Microprosopus)

"The ear [of the Small-faced One] is formed inside with 'curved incisions', so that the 'voice (kola) may be traced as it goes up into the brain'. In the ear, there are the Lords of Wings, whose function is to convert the 'voice (kola)', into 'speech (melah)'."
- George Sassoon and Rodney Dale, The Manna Machine

"And that speech that goes out is made to break through into the ether [or space], and it is poured out and goes up and flies into the universe [or world]. And the 'voice' is made from it...and it goes into [the king's] ears."
- - HADRA ZVTA QDIShA (Lesser Holy Assembly) 592

"Ordinary 'speech' can be heard by human ears, but it does not travel very far. But with the help of 'Lords of Wings', the speech can be converted into the 'voice'. the voice - a radio signal - cannot be heard by the unaided ear, but it can travel vast distances. However, in order to hear it, another set of Lords of wings is necessary, a radio receiver to convert it back to speech again."
- George Sassoon and Rodney Dale, The Manna Machine

"For a bird of the air shall carry the voice, and the Lord of the Wings shall tell the speech."
- Ecclesiastes 10:20

In the discussion of the black eye of the Small-faced One:

"The second color is black, like the stone which goes out from the depth once in a thousand years into the great sea. When this stone goes out, there comes a disturbance and a power on the sea. And it is the 'voice' of the sea, and its rotations [galgalohi] are made to flow. And the great fish that is called Leviathan is made to listen to them."
- Greater Holy Assembly 632

Friday, December 22, 2006

Shrouded in Deceit – Leonardo's Last Laugh

Composite Photograph of the shroud

After 500 years we can at last spot the flaws in Leonardo's 15th century?

Greater contrast of negative image reveals detail

Anomalies resulting from projection of three images:

  • A giant figure – 6'8" at front, 6'10" at back!
  • Head too small for body – and displaced upwards! (projection of head added separately)
  • Face unnaturally thin; forehead and sides of face foreshortened, ears lost
  • Right arm/hand too long (double exposure of fingers)
  • Light circle on nose (effect of lens, centred on the face)
  • Back of head wider than front of head
  • Image area oxidized and dehydrated (result of using heat to burn chemical image into cloth. Chemical solution then washed off)

Other anomalies:

  • Hair hanging vertically, added later (on a shrouded, horizontal body hair would have fallen towards back of head)
  • Composed expression – odd for a torture victim!
  • No loin cloth but naked, with hands over genitals (sensitive to intended audience – or a cryptic joke?
  • 'Flowing blood stains' from a corpse? (added in separate process)

Positive image of the Shroud – as seen by the naked eye.

The Shroud is a biscuit coloured cloth 4.4 m by 1.9 m. The large marks are the result of a fire which burned the (folded) cloth and its subsequent repair, in 1532.

Carbon Dating of the Cloth

Such hullabaloo greeted the early identification of pollen ("as found in the Holy Land") in 1973 – yet carbon dating in 1988 at three different laboratories all agreed: the cloth was no older than the 14th century. At that time, the Crusaders brought back vast quantities of Infidel cloth, of much better quality than could be found in Christian Europe.

That the Shroud was fake was obvious – but then how was it done? No known painting technique could reproduce such an effect. This remained the last defense
of die-hard defenders of "authenticity."

But now we know better – the Shroud was not painted at all, it is a photograph!

Pity that 15th century Europe was still in the vicious grip of Holy Mother Church – we might have had the Box Brownie camera in time for the War of the Roses!

Leonardo – Sacrilegious 'Sorcerer' Outwits the Priests

"Many are those who trade in tricks & simulated miracles, duping the foolish multitude; and if nobody unmasked their subterfuges, they would impose them on everyone."

– Leonardo da Vinci (Manuscript F, Institut de France, 5v)

Best known for his artistic masterpieces Leonardo da Vinci revealed insights into everything from the human body to engines of war. He conceptualised objects as diverse as scissors, bicycles and helicopters. Living in the age of the Inquisition, a time when merely being a vegetarian might lead to execution, he had to remain ever vigilant of the censure of the Church. For its part, the Church was only interested in Leonardo's ability to artistically represent the Faith.

Commissioned to produce a better Shroud, he pioneered an early photographic technique, using lenses, a camera obscura, chromium salts and – in a wonderful satire on Church duplicity – his own face in lieu of Jesus Christ!

Head on the Shroud (left) and Leonardo da Vinci self-portrait (right).

On the one hand ...

The 'Shroud' is never mentioned in the New Testament – and nor is it ever referred to by early Christians.

On the other hand ...

'Holy Shrouds' were part of hugely profitable medieval fakery industry – more than 40 rival shrouds are known. The 'Turin Shroud' appeared suddenly on Good Friday, 1494!

The Devil's Magic? Camera obscura...

At least as early as Aristotle (4th century BC) it had been noted that a small hole into a darkened room throws a reversed and upside-down image of the outside scene onto the opposite wall. From at least the time of the Romans, it had been known certain materials reacted to light.

The challenge for Renaissance alchemist/artists – whilst avoiding the attentions of the Inquisition – was to capture and fix the projected image using the right material.

Leonardo, man of outstanding artistic skill and technical ingenuity, was equal to that challenge.

Leonardo's sketch of his "oculus artificialis" (artificial eye)
– a camera obscura.

When & Where?

Leonardo served several wealthy Renaissance patrons, including Giuliano de Medici, son-in-law of the Duke of Savoy. The House of Savoy (which became the Italian royal family) had acquired an earlier 'Holy Shroud' from a minor French aristocratic family, the de Charnys, around 1453.

This (painted) shroud had long since been denounced by the local bishop as "a fake used to defraud gullible pilgrims" but he had been silenced by the Pope. Nothing was seen of any shroud for thirty years.

Colluding with the House of Savoy, Pope Innocent VIII (the witch-burning pope, closely tied to Lorenzo de Medici) commissioned Leonardo to produce a 'better shroud' in 1492.

Under what threats Leonardo worked we can but speculate. Vegetarianism alone could have got him burned, let alone his homosexuality.

Two years later – no doubt after much experimentation – the 'Holy Shroud' appeared. In its positive form it was disappointing – and Leonardo was not paid!

By sheer serendipity, modern photography reversed Leonardo's image into an altogether more awesome artifact – and triggered off a new century of delirious 'Faith'.

The old alchemist would have laughed his socks off!

(Via World Mysteries.)