Sunday, August 06, 2006

Gnostic Glossary A to Z

Saunders Gnostic Glossary 2006:
Tom Saunders, B.A. / B.S., Certified Linguist.


There is a lost Christianity that can be brought back to understanding from the Gnostic texts of the Nag Hammadi Library, and other texts like "Pistis Sophia," with many others mentioned below. Until the serious study of the Nag Hammadi texts in the last few years, nobody has had the knowledge to assume much about what is contained in Gnostic texts.

The following set of terms was gathered by myself and members of a group of scholars who study the "Gospel of Thomas." These human sources of information include, Dr. Andrew Criddle, Dr. William Arnal, Dr. Mark Goodachre, Dr. Jack Kilmon, Dr. Lynn Bauman, Mike Grondin, Frank McCoy, and others.

Many of the terms below come from original works by Karl Nygren. Special thanks to him and other members of the various ''Gospel of Thomas'' groups I have participated with over the years. Those entries which are not marked with references are probably from the/a Nygren collection, or are explanations gleaned from discussion groups. A glossary is really a work that is never finished.... Glossary means; ''A word list; a brief dictionary used in a field of study or in a certain literary work, with an explanation or definition of their meanings.'' "Glossology;'' is a synonym for ''Linguistics.'' I hope that this work will serve as a 'lexicology,' for the Secret works described below. (''The Dictionary of Linguistics,'' Pei- Gaynor, Littlefield, 1969, pg. 83., 122. )

Abraxas: (Abrasax) The letters of this word add up to 365 in some schema of numerology. In Irenaeus' outline of the beliefs of Basilides, the term seems to refer to the unknown Father, the 'Prime Source.' In writings by Hippolytus, what is described seems to be a reference to the Demiurge. In some of the surviving Gnostic texts, Abrasax is one of a number of "light bringers." (See; ''Zostrianos,'' ''The Gospel of the Egyptians,'' and ''The Apocalypse of Adam.'')

Achamoth: In Hebrew meaning 'wisdom,' possibly related to the Hebrew word for wisdom, "chokmah". An Aeon representing 'wisdom' created by Sophia (Wisdom) in the pleroma. (See; ''First Apocalypse of James,'' Nag Hammadi Lib.) Called 'Echmoth' in the ''Gospel of Phillip,'' meaning 'little Wisdom' or "wisdom of death."

Aeon: These are characterized as emanations from the 'first cause,' the Father in some Gnostic schema. The word not only refers to the "worlds" of emanation, but to the personalities as well. Sophia, Logos, and the other high principles are aeons. ''A link or level of the great chain of being, the sum total which is the 'All' or Pleroma...Can also mean a world age.'' (See; Gaffney) ''According to other Gnostics, for example Valentinus, the first principle is also called Aeon or the unfathomable, the primeval depth, the absolute abyss, bythos, in which everything is sublimated...'' translated by Scott J. Thompson from G.W.F. Hegel's ''Vorlesungen über die Geschichte der Philosophie ii ,'' (Theorie Werkausgabe, Bd. 19), Frankfurt a.M., Suhrkamp Verlag, 1977, 426-430] ( See also; Pleroma.0

Agape: Refers to love. For some Gnostics it refers to the ability of the initiate to see the divine spark in all life, in the process of becoming Pneumatic. ''Love, Faith, Hope, and Knowledge,'' are elements of a 'tetrad,' explained in the ''Gospel of Phillip.''

Agrapha: means unwritten. Two pieces of agrapha, apperently that did get written down, are of interest because they parallel the ''Gospel of Thomas,'' saying 22 c., which has no other Gospel parallels. ''12. Acts of Philip, 34. For the Lord said unto me: If you make not that which is bleow in you to be above, and the left hand to be right, ye shall not enter into my kingdom. 13. Linus Martyrdom of Peter, 17. The Lord said in a mystery: If ye make not the left hand as the right and the right as the left, and the things that are above as the things that are below, and the things that are before as those that are behind, ye shall not know the Kingdom of God. (''The New Testament Apochrypha,'' by James, Apocryphile Press page, 36.)

Agnoia: Literally "ignorance" or not paying attention.

Agnosia: State of not having insight or Gnosis.

Alchemy: Early chemistry concerned with the search for the philosopher's stone, a substance believed to turn base metals into gold. Also the quest for eternal life, by the use of alchemical and human transmutation. The art of alchemy can be traced back to 100-150 B.C. in China, before the practice of rejuvination and eternal life appeared in the west. The great Wei Po-Yang (100-50 A.D.), is said to have discovered 'true gold medicine.' (See; Transubstantiation. See; ''The History of Magic and the Occult,'' Seligmann, Gramercy, 1997. pg. 95. See also; ''The Steinerbooks Dictionary of the Psychic, Mystic, and Occult,'' Rudolf Steiner, 1973. pg. 15.)

Allegory: Writings, characterized by themes or parts with intentional multiple analogies. They relate characters and events in a manner to represent more than one thing or meaning. Origen stated that scripture can have literal, moral, and spiritual meanings. (See also; Exegesis.)

Allogenes: Means "alien" or of another race. The existence of spiritual force in the material realm is "alien" to it. This includes both aeons, such as the Logos, as well as the Gnostic him/her self. According to Dr. Gilles, Allogenes, is also a reference to Seth, the third son of Adam and Eve. In Jewish gnosis Seth is viewed as the Saviour." ( Emeritus Professor Gilles Quispel who discovered the Gospel of Thomas.) ''Allogenes'' is a 'Sethian' tractate, and is contained in Codex XI. 3, of the Nag Hammadi Lib.

Anastasis: Means resurrection. Another term related to, or used like apokatastasis, and in some cases may be used as synonymous with the process or Gnostic salvation. (See Apokatastasis. See also; Origen.)

Androgyny: A state of a being with both, like Yin and Yang in the Tai Chi, or having no sexual characteristics. (See; Barbelo, Pronoia, Protophanes.)

Angel: (angelos) A messenger from a divine source, or God. (See; ''The Five Gospels,'' by Funk, Hoover, Harpper-Collins, 1993, p. 544. ''Heavenly Messenger.'')

Anthropos: "Man". This is the cosmic human as well as the philosophical form of the regular human.

Antinomianism: While this word literally refers to the belief that legal precepts are no longer applicable to a "saved" individual, it has come to be used in regards to any libertine doctrines in common parlance. It is in reference to heresy. Thus, the Christian groups that are experiential rather than ascetic have been referred to as 'antinomian.' There is reason to doubt that the "any thing goes" ideas that have been ascribed to Gnostics like Carpocrates, and in places like Corinth, or the practices of secular offshoots of Ophites and others are accurate. Gnostics did not agree among themselves. (See; Book Three, ''Stromata, On Marriage.'')

Antitactae: (Antitactes) May refer to a sect, or independent or ascetic (licentious, antinomian) Gnostics, rather than the followers of any single master, to whom they can be traced.

Apelles: A Gnostic follower of Marcion who later disagreed with Marcionite philosophies, especially concerning docetics and dualism. His work "Hexaëmeron" was an attempt to refute Moses.

Apocalypse: A writing which relates a revelation, usually associated with doom. (See; ''The Apocalypse of Paul,'' NHL.)

Apocrypha: Means 'hidden things' in Greek. Usually in reference to non canonized texts or scriptures, like the "Gospel of Thomas."

Apochryphon: "Secret Book". The notion of secrecy was important for a wide variety of early Christians for many reasons. Thus the development of the "secret writings" amongst the Gnostics. (See; "Apochryphon of James" and Apochryphon of John" Nag Hammadi Lib. NHL.)

Apokatastasis: Meaning salvation and restoration through the reception of the Holy Spirit, Jesus. The term is used by Heracleon in reference to "fruit of eternal life or because it (Gnosis), is itself eternal life." It was used by Origen differently, as if he meant the term to connote a communal Anastasis. ''Origen teaches the "apokatastasis", the final restoration of all intelligent creatures to friendship with God.'' (New Advent. See also; Anastasis.)

Apolutrosis: "Redemption" as seen as being helped by the rite of initiation which helps to impart gnosis. This word refers to both the rite and what is received from it. (See; Metenoia, Etennoia, Enlightenment.)

Aponoia: "Unreason" like the misuse of thought. This is different than simply not having thought, as the inability to "put things together" can be worse than not even knowing they do in fact fit.

Apostle: A title distinguishing the twelve disciples whom Jesus selected to be intimately associated with himself, they are: (Mt. 10-1,5) "And he called unto him his twelve disciples, and gave them authority over unclean spirits, to cast them out, and to heal all manner of disease and all manner of sickness. Now the names of the twelve apostles are these: The first, Simon, who is called Peter, and Andrew his brother; James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother; Philip, and Bartholomew; Thomas, and Matthew the publican; James the son of Alphaeus, and Thaddaeus; Simon the Cananaean, and Judas Iscariot, who also betrayed him. These twelve Jesus sent forth, and charged them, saying, Go not into any way of the Gentiles, and enter not into any city of the Samaritans." (See also; Lk.6v13.)

Aramaic: A language spoken in Israel, Syria, and Mesopotamia. Aramaic inscriptions are known from at least 800 B.C. until now. Known to be the first language of Jesus.

Archigenitor: The "first begetter". A Greek reference to Yaldabaoth. (See; Demiurge.)

Archon: "Ruler." Refers to the creators and governing forces in the material world. The Demiurge and his angels (aeons). From a form of governing known in Alexandria. Like the term 'Allogenes,' archons are used to explain pleromic entities in versions of the Gnostic explanations for creation, however they may be seen as evil forces. ''A Gnostic ruler, sometimes equivalent with the Demiurge. Archons are synonymous with ''princes of the world,'' in the ''Gospel of John.'' ''Basilides calls Archons, the heads of the spirit realms.'' (''Gnostics,'' CWF Hegal) (See also; Gaffney, p. 240.) Archons are the prototype for Jung's allegory to ''archetypes.'' (See; Hoeller. See also; ''Hidden Wisdom,'' Smoley, Kinney, Penguin, 1999, Ch. 2.)

Arete: Means "virtue". In Platonic ideal it is a reference to the importance of meaning above technical skill 'techne'. It denotes mythological value within a literate framework or craft. Later philosophical movements refer to this notion as "High Art" vs. "Low Art." (See; Craftsman.)

Aristotle: Ancient Greek philosopher thought to have devised the "Square of Opposition" a device whereby logic can be graphed. The device was handed down in the philosophies of many and was generally known by Pre-Socratic Philosophers.

Ascetic: One who practices a renunciation, or change of worldly pursuits to achieve spiritual attainment. (See; ''The Birth of Christianity, Crossan, Harper, San Francisco, pg's, 270, 410-11.)

Asclepius: Name of Tractate 8, of Codex VI of the Nag Hammadi Lib., also known as "The Perfect Teachings." Also name of main character of the text. The text is Hermetic, and related to the "Discourse of the 8th and 9th." (See also; ''Kybalion,'' Three Initiates, Inner Traditions, 2004, List of Hermetic Principles.)

Authades: Authority (heavenly/pleromic) in Pistis Sophia (Askew Codex) who casts emanations in the 'pleromic' realm, and has powers over archons, aeons, and other entities including in the Heimarene. Word 'Authades' may mean 'thought.' (See; Sabaoth.)

Autogenes: "Self Generated," in reference to the first Aeon or the guiding light. May refer to the growth of a monad into a genus and species type form and structure. (See; Monogene, and Allogene.)

Avatar: A term used in literalist works, meaning a messenger from a divine source who's purpose it is to exact revenge, or punishment. An avenger. Gnostic demons (messengers) are called forms, and reflect darkness or four levels of agnosia, or aponoia in a person's mental state. Also a Hindu term referring to an incarnation of a deity. Avatars are not mentioned in Sethian works, (See; ''Seven Forms of Wrath,'' ''Gospel of Mary.'' See also; Tarturos.)

Baptism: Ritual purification. (See; Baptism A. and B. NHL.) ''Therefore baptism is called death and an end of the old life when we take leave of the evil principalities, but it is also called life according to Christ, of which he is sole Lord. But the power of the transformation of him who is baptised does not concern the body but the soul, for he who comes up is unchanged. From the moment when he comes up from baptism he is called a servant of God even by the unclean spirits and they now "tremble" at him whom shortly before they obsessed.'' (Theodotus, Criddle Collection.)

Barbelo (BARBHLW): Generally the first aeon, body or voice in the Sethian creation myth; "the first virginal emanation," it may have an androgynous connotation, but represents a Gnostic version of Yin, and Yang, and the sexual energy called 'Jing'. (See Allogenes, Tractate 3, Codex XI, of the Nag Hammadi Lib. See also: Pistis Sophia, Ch. 8, BK 1, Askew Codex. See also: ''Apocryphon of John,'' ''Marsenes,'' ''The Gospel of the Egyptians,'' ''Melchizedek,'' ''The Gospel of Judas,'' Trimorphic Protennoia,'' ''The Three Steles of Seth, and Zostrianos'') "I cast into her the first power which I had received from the Barbelo, which is the body which I wore in the height." (''Pistis Sophia'') ''And I saw holy powers by means of the Luminaries of the virginal male Barbelo telling me that I would be able to test what happens in the world:'' (Allogenes) ''Great is the first aeon, male virginal Barbelo, the first glory of the invisible Father, she who is called perfect." (''The Three Steles of Seth'') ''O Mother of the aeons, Barbelo! O first-born of the aeons, splendid Doxomedon Dom[...]! O glorious one, Jesus Christ!' (''Melchizedek'')

Barnabus: (?-100 c) Companion to Paul and many others who founded early Christian churches, and made various journeys. Wrote the "Epistle of Barnabus," which was rejected for the Christian canon. Was the Uncle of Mark. (See; "The Lost Books of the Bible,'' Eden, LB Press. 1926-01.)

Basilides: (?-138) An Alexandrian Gnostic who formed sects around 120 to 138. Known to be associated with Valentinus, and Mathias, and other early Christian leaders. May have also had knowledge of Dositheos and others associated with Simon Magus, or Gnosticism in Samaria. Thought to have had knowledge of both mystical and Hellenistic philosophy. (See also; ''The Other Bible,'' by Barnstone, Harper, 1980; See also; ''Stromata.'')

Beatitudes: Sayings which confer good fortune for the designated person or a characteristic of. Usually beatitudes are marked by the beginning, "Blessed are," or an equivalent. Their opposites are 'warnings' which are marked by the saying 'Woe to' or an equivalent.

Boule: Refers to the "will" of God which in turn leads to the word (Logos) of God in some Gnostic contexts. Not a common term in Sethian texts.

Bythos: The "Void". Its the "primal ground" and the pre-beginning forefather. May denote the void between dualities, like Yin and Yang, Pronoia, and Protophanes, Pleroma, and Kenoma, but the term is not generally found in Sethian works. "According to other Gnostics, for example Valentinus, the first principle is also called Aeon or the unfathomable, the primeval depth, the absolute abyss, bythos, in which everything is sublimated (aufgehoben) before the beginning (proárche) or before the Father (propátor). Aeon is the activator." ([An excerpt from Hegel's ''Lectures on the History of Philosophy,'' translated by Scott Thompson, from G.W.F. Hegel's ''Vorlesungen über die Geschichte der Philosophie ii ,'' (Theorie Werkausgabe, Bd. 19), Frankfurt a.M., Suhrkamp Verlag, 1977, 426-430]

Cassianus,Julius: A Christian teacher in Egypt, around 170. In ''Stromateis (III.13.91-92), is Clement's citation it is also to be noted that Julius Cassianus quotes from the apocryphal gospel so-called "According to the Egyptians" to support his understanding that intercourse is not from God--a position which he understood, though dubiously, was taught by the Saviour (apud Grant 1946: 52-53; cf. Aland 1978: 336): "When you conceal the garment of shame, and when the two become one, and the male with the female is neither male nor female." He is said to have been associated with encratites, and doceticism.

Catechise: Refers to spiritual or religious instruction given to an initiate. (See; Pantaenus, Clement of Alexandria.)

Cathars: (Also known as Albigensians) A Christian sect destroyed by the Catholic Crusaders during the Albigensian Crusade. They derived their teaching from the Bogomils an Eastern European group arising about 900 AD. The Cathars were a dualistic and gnostic sect in northern Italy and southern France in the late Middle Ages of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. "Cathar" comes from the Greek word katharos meaning pure. There was two classes of believers -- the elite Perfect (Parfaits); and the believers (croyants, or in Latin, credentes).

Carpocrates: (100?-150 CE); Formed a sect in Alexandria known as Carpocrations. Possible successor to Samaritan Simon Magus. He taught reincarnation in his Gnostic philosophy. An individual had to live many lives and adsorb a full range of experiences before being able to return to God. They practiced free sexuality. They believed that Jesus was the son of Joseph. They questioned the docetic aspects attributed to Jesus. (See; "Sromata,'' Bk 3.)

Cebes: (circa 350?-400? B.C.) Greek philosopher, thought to be a student of Socrates noted for his beliefs that the soul is worn like a garment. Also argued against Socrates immortality of the soul.

Celsus: A pagan writer who wrote against Christianity in, "True Discourse" (or, True Reason). This polemic against the Christians was composed in approximately 178 CE. Celsus criticized the Christians for believing in blind faith rather than reason.

Cerinthus: A first century leader of the Ebionites, who were a Jewish sect somewhat like early Christian Gnostics who argued various aspects of Christian theology. Cerinthus is noted in the early history of the Christian church as being a "heresiarch" or leader of a heretical sect. None of his writings survives.

Choic: (choikus) "Earthly" similar to "hylic".

Chrestois: Those considered good, (protected in the kingdom) according to Clement of Alexandria, (See; Bk. 2 "Stromata.")

Chrism: The annointment with oil. (See; ''On the Anointing.'' NHL) ''The chrism is superior to baptism, for it is from the word "Chrism" that we have been called "Christians," certainly not because of the word "baptism". And it is because of the chrism that "the Christ" has his name. For the Father anointed the Son, and the Son anointed the apostles, and the apostles anointed us.'' (''Gospel of Philip.'')

Christology: The study of Christ, and various aspects of Jesus' existence.

Clement of Alexandria: (?-215 A.D.) Greek theologian, writer, and head of the Catechetical School of Alexandria. Clement succeeded his teacher Pantaenus about A.D. 190, and took over the direction of the school. Wrote "Stromata" in which he makes various assessments of others including Basilides, Plato,Valentinus, and Gnostic beliefs. Declared that the Gnostic seeks to become God. (See also; Clement's ''Instructor,'' which is more of an Orthodox work, compared to ''Stromata.'')

Clement of Rome: (30-100 A.D.) According to Tertullian and Jerome, Clement of Rome was ordained by Peter and became the fourth Pope of Rome. He was the author of an "Epistle to the Corinthians," the only known manuscript of which is appended to the Alexandrian Codex, now in the British Museum. (The work appears to be oriented to Orthodox epistemologies, like Clement of Alexandria's ''Instructor.'')

Codex: Refers to a book like form of a writing collection, as opposed to a scroll. (Askew Codex, Bruce Codex, Berlin, etc.) The Nag Hammadi Library, is written in 'codices.'

Corporeal: Composed of flesh or being of matter in the animate, earthly or material way. There are various different beliefs in Christianity and Gnosticism of the non-corporeal, or docetic state.

Cosmogony: Study of the cosmos and cosmic order, or in Gnostic terms the Pleroma, in contrast with the earthly state.

Cosmology: Study of the physical universe and its governing laws.

Craftsman: A term used to connote Gnostic attainment. The term is also used in regard to creation. "All things were made through Him," means that it was the Word who caused the Craftsman (Demiurge) to make the world, that is it was not the Word "from whom" or "by whom," but the one "through whom (all things were made).". . The term also refers to men, ''The official was the Craftsman, for he himself ruled like a king over those under him.'' (Heracleon) " Clement of Alexandria explains ''.....correct expounders of the truth, are Gnostics. Since also, in what pertains to life, Craftsmen are superior to ordinary people, and model what is beyond common notions; so, consequently, we also, giving a complete exhibition of the Scriptures from the Scriptures themselves, from faith persuaded by demonstration." (Clement. "Stromata" Bk. 7.)

Decalogue: A term used by Clement of Alexandria..."And the Decalogue, viewed as an image of heaven, embraces sun and moon, stars, clouds, light, wind, water, air, darkness, fire. This is the physical Decalogue of the heaven. And the representation of the earth contains men, cattle, reptiles, wild beasts; and of the inhabitants of the water, fishes and whales; and again, of the winged tribes, those that are carnivorous, and those that rise mild food; and of plants likewise, both fruit-bearing and barren. This is the physical Decalogue of the earth. And there is a ten in man himself: the five senses, and the power of speech, and that of reproduction; and the eighth is the spiritual principle communicated at his creation; and the ninth the ruling faculty of the soul; and tenth, there is the distinctive characteristic of the Holy Spirit, which comes to him through faith. "

Demiurge: Meaning 'Creator' in Greek. Thought to be the "Craftsman" or creator of the material world. (Heracleon) In Orthodox thought this is a supernatural entity or force, such as the appearance of God to Moses. In the Gnostic schema the Word refers to an order, and it may be a natural sort of intelligent design, related to wisdom, the earthly or kenomic state of the higher wisdom, or form from the Pleroma. The material state is considered less than the Pleromic, and highly flawed. Archons seem to be emanations from the Demiurge process, much like other emanations from the Pleroma. (See; Pleroma, Kenoma, Archon.)

Diatessaron: A harmony Gospel composed around 170, by Tatian.

Didache: Means literaly "The Teaching." The Didache, which originated about 110 CE, documents the emerging authority of the one great Gospel. the Didache gives instruction on how a Christian community should treat itinerant Christian prophets. (See; Early Christian Writings, Stanforth translation, Penquin, 1987.)

Didascalia: "Catholic Teaching of the Twelve Apostles and Holy Disciples of Our Savior," is a Church Order, composed, according to recent investigations, in the first part, perhaps even the first decades, of the third century, for a community of Christian converts from Paganism in the northern part of Syria. Similar to the "Didache."

Didrachmae: In reference to money or the process of using money. (See; ''Apochryphon of James.'')

Docetism: Meaning "image." Docetic refers to being non-corporeal, or not being composed of matter. (See; Julius Cassianus.)

Dositheos: Believed to be the founder of Samaritan Gnosticism in the first century, and teacher of Simon Magus. Dositheans were a Gnostic sect which called "God" only 'Elohim' not 'Yehouah or Lord.' He is stated as the author of the "Three Steles of Seth." See; (NHL p. 396.)

Echmoth: (Echamoth) Meaning a form of wisdom; "Echamoth is one thing and Echmoth, another. Echamoth is Wisdom simply, but (e) Echmoth is the Wisdom of death, which is the one who knows death, which is called "the little Wisdom". ("Gospel of Phillip, NHL.)

Ebionites: A name used by early Jewish sects who were considered Christians. Tertullian believed the sect was started by Ebion in Jerusalem. The term Ebionite is also translated as the 'poor' in Hebrew. Iranaeus classified them as heretical. Those that believed the Jewish traditions should be incorporated into Christianity are referred to as "Judaizers."

Ekousiai: Name of a Sethian authority in the Spirit World.

Enlightenment: Refers to a state of being; described in Chinese/Oriental classics that reflects the same kinds of mental changes, 'awareness,' or 'Satroi' as in Gnosis. ''The Enlightenment refers to a movement in philosophy that advocated the untrammeled use of reason to establish truth. The movement challenged traditional authority, doctrine, and values. Emphasis was placed on the empirical method employed by the sciences.'' (''The Five Gospels,'' by Funk, Hoover, Harrier-Collins, 1993, p. 544.) ''For scientific knowledge is necessary both for the training of the soul and for gravity of conduct; making the faithful more active and keen observers of things. For as there is no believing without elementary instruction, so neither is there comprehension without science.'' (Quote from Theodotus, See; Kirby, Criddle collections.)

Ennoia: Means "thought" Sophia in her high form as Pleromic, is the first thought (so she is the first Aeon, or Pleroma, and the last one as well). Creation happens in the triad of thought, word, and action. (See; 'Tripartite Tractate.')

Epiphanes: Son of Carpacrotes of Alexandria. Clement stated that Epiphanes had been taught the way of the ''Monad.'' "But the followers of Carpocrates, and Epiphanes think wives should be common property.'' (See; Bk 3, of ''Stromata.'')

Epiphanius: (310-403) ''In 367 his reputation for asceticism and learning brought about his nomination as Bishop of Constantia (Salamis) the metropolis of the Island of Cyprus. He wrote against Origen and Gnostics. He identified the existence of the Gospel of Judas Iscariot,'' and ''Birth of Mary,'' {''Gospel of Mary''} which he says describes horrible and deadly things. (He admits to not having seen the Gnostic texts, but claims to know about them. ) He wrote in regard to an unidentified Gnostic Gospel.... ''Another Gospel (?) of similar tendancy was that which was used by the nameless "Adversary of the Law, and the Prophets' {Gnostics} whom Augustine refutes, and from which the following is quoted. '' The Apostles having asked the Lord what they were to think about the Jewish prophets, who were thought in the past to have fortold his coming, he was troubled that they even yet had such thoughts, and answered: Ye have given up (let go) the living on who is before your eyes and talk idly of the dead." Epiphanius, also identifies the ''Apocalypse of Paul,'' as being a book written by Canites, or Cananites, (Canaanites) and used by Gnostics. Paul is quoted in the text to have been taken up to the level of the ''Third Heaven,'' which corresponds to the Nag Hammadi text. It does not correspond to the other ''Apocalypse of Paul,'' which fragments exist in Greek, Latin, and Coptic. The Canaanites were an ancient tribe that lived in the basic area that is Israel today. ( "The New Testament Apocrypha,'' James, Apocryphile Press, pages 19- 20, 525, 575.) ,

Epinoia: Means "insight" as it comes from the higher connections of spirit, portrayed as a Pleromic emination . It can be translated as "wisdom" in the modern sense of the word. Without it one cannot gain Gnosis. This 'insight' refers to, metanoia, (change of mind), and self-knowledge of the soul, which is merged with the 'light' or Sophia, in the act of Gnosis. (See; the "Apocryphon of John," See also; Metenoia.)

Eros: The love that comes from the desire to reunite. It is a passion contrast with agape which is compassion). Eros originates when the Demiurge sees "light Adam" or the primal man (See; Anthropos, Agape.)

Esaldaios: Name that the Naassenes used for the Demiurge.

Essenes: Jewish communal sect known as free thinkers at the time of Jesus. They were said by Josephus to have combined Pythagoran, and Stoic theory, with ascetic virtues, and spiritual knowledge with divine law. In Masada, the Essenes were the keepers and/or writers (some works) of the 'Dead Sea Scrolls.'

Eugnosis: Freely developing (gnosis.)

Eusebius: ( 260-341 A. D.) Eusebius Pamphili, Bishop of Cæsarea in Palestine, known as the "Father of Church History." Known to have been counsel to Emperor Constantine who converted the Roman Empire to Christianity. Was an anti-Gnostic who carried on the teachings of Irenaeus, and Hippolytus against heretics. ''At the opening of the Council of Nicæa Eusebius occupied the first seat on the right of the emperor, and delivered the inaugural address which was couched in a strain of thanksgiving to Almighty God on his, the emperor's behalf." (New Advent, Catholic Encyc., Online.)

Exegesis: An explanation of a passage, or word. It is related to allegory and translation of scripture.

Exousiai: Name for the powers of the entities in the Pleroma. (See "Pistis Sophia.") Referred to as rulers and wicked powers in the "1st Book of Jeu."

Fasting: ''Fasting according to the signification of the word, is abstinence from food. Now food makes us neither more righteous nor less. But mystically it shows that, as life is maintained in individuals by sustenance, and want of sustenance is the token of death; so also ought we to fast from worldly things, that we may die to the world, and after that, by partaking of divine sustenance, live to God. Especially does fasting empty the soul of matter, and make it, along with the body, pure and light for the divine words. Worldly food is, then, the former life and sins; but the divine food is faith, hope, love, patience, knowledge, peace, temperance. For "blessed are they that hunger and thirst after" God's "righteousness; for they shall be filled." The soul, but not the body, it is which is susceptible of this craving.'' (Theodotus/Kirby Collection.)

Garment: Meaning clothing, but in Gnostic terms can mean the flesh covering the body. Sometimes used in various references to wearing the soul or the idea of social position as a philosophical covering. From the Un-named text in the Bruce Codex: "This is Man, begotten of mind (nous) ', to whom thought gave form. It is thou who hast given all things to Man. And he has worn them like garment." (See also; Cebes)

Gehenna: Meaning hell, hades, sheol, in Gnostic terms hell is, the darkness, desire, and ignorance of Agnosia. In the ''Gospel of Judas,'' Satan is Saklas, meaning foolishness. (See Tartaros, See also the ''Gospel of Mary'' for the 'forms of wrath;' See also; ''The Five Gospels,'' p. 544.)

Gematria: The study or science and art of number and letter manipulation. This would include geometric forms such as the Tetraktys of the Decad. ''I {Jesus} have turned their (periods of) influence and their quadrangles and their triangles and their figures of eight , since their (periods of) influence remained turned to the left from the beginning, together with their quadrangles and their triangles and their figures of eight.'' (''Pistis Sophia,'' See also; Tetraktys of the Decad.'' See also; ''Marsenes.'' )

Glaucius: Glaucius and Mark, if by only legend where employed in recording the records of Peter, in Alexandria, around 44 C. E. (See; Works of Henry Barchlay Swete, 1835-1917.)

Gnosis: While the literal translation for this word is "knowledge", it's meaning is closer to "insight" or, to use another concept, "enlightenment." It may imply more in some cases than a purely intellectual understanding. It may imply complete comprehension that comes from both rational and intuited means. Gnosis is bonding the soul (nous) with wisdom, in both Sethian,Valentinian, and other Gnostic schema, which link this act through Jesus. The process of Gnosis may have different schema, or criteria as to secular practices. The process of Gnosis seems to be transitional or a transcendence in a learned process.

Gnostic: A person regarded as a student of Gnosis. Can refer to specific sects mentioned by historians, and heresiologists, The term can be used as a category for a number of sects and individuals that believed "Gnosis" had a salvational purpose. Gnostic sects are known to have existed in pre-Christian Jewish communities and later in Christian movements, according to information in the "Nag Hammadi" text by Robinson. Gnostic views differ, as do secular characters of the Pleroma in the creation myths. The term or versions of it, are used very early in regard to Christian learning, this quote from Book 3 of Clement of Alexandria's "Stromata." "Joannis autem vitae institutum gnosticum quis imitabitur?"

Gnosticism: The word was adapted by modern scholars to refer to the sects of the 'Late Antiquities' that shared a similar cosmology and soteriology. More recently the definition has been widened in some circles to mean any form of mysticism or esotericism. Gnostic scenarios both differ, and are alike in the cosmic reasoning for the creation, making them 'creation myths.' Gnostic texts use different names for the characters of the creation stories for characters from the Palermo. Gnostics all believe that man, through learning the perspectives of his psyche, earthly, and pleromic self can attain life after death in a corporeal state by bonding with the higher entities. The 'Light,' ' Sophia,' (Wisdom). (See also; ''The Five Gospels,'' by Funk, Hoover, Harpper-Collins, 1993, p. 544.)

Gospel: Means 'good news.' Gospels were used to relate evangelistic teachings. Gnostic writings appear to have been based upon all existing Gospels attributed to Apostles. Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, as well as Pauline letters are mentioned in some Gnostic texts. The ''Gospel of Thomas'' appears to be a main source of Bible Gospel, and Jesus reference in the Nag Hammadi collection, as well as other Gnostic works. The ''Gospel of Mary,'' and the ''Gospel of Phillip'' are in the Nag Hammadi Lib. The ''Gospel of Phillip'' contains some New Testament references. , Jn 6:53, 8-32, 8-34, Mt. 3-10, 3-15, 15-13, 16-17, Paul, 1 Co 8-1, 1 P 4-8. See also ''The Gospel of Judas,'' and ''The Gospel of Truth.''

Hamarcia: (hamartolos) Meaning to have a fatal flaw, or to be a sinner.

Haptomai: (hapto) Meaning to attach to or set on fire.

Hebdomas: The kingdom of the "Seven", referring to the spheres of the planets and thus the Archons in the creation myths. Refers to seven 'types' in texts like the ''Gospel of Mary.'' Considered below the Ogdoad, but is in succession with the sequence of the monad to decad, and is a '7th form' in the Sethian Monadology. (See also the "Book of Jue," and Un-named text in the Bruce Codex, Sethian Monadology. See also; ''The Gospel of Mary,'' Ch. 8., ''The Seven Powers of Wrath.'' See also; Sabaoth.)

Hegesippus: (110- 180 C.E.) Considered a Palestinian Jew, who later converted to Christianity, but was anti-Gnostic. Under Pope Anicetus (155-166) he undertook a journey to compare Christian teachings in the Roman Empire. He wrote about these assessments in his books called "Memoirs" of which only fragments exist today. He was said to be a poor writer. (New Advent.)

Heimarene: Original Greek means 'choice.' Literally "destiny." Some Gnostics believed hylics are controlled by the spheres of the stars, which represent different base drives. Destiny in this sense does not apply to the Gnostic, who has broken past such connections, in becoming Pleromic through the living resurrection.

Heracleon: A Valentinean Gnostic Sage, possibly from Sicily, who flourished around 120? A.D. He declared that, ''the orthodox church was dogmatic and like unourishing stagnant water.'' Origen and Clement preserved some of his commentary on the ''Gospel of John,'' and others of which some fragments still exist. (See; ''Fragments of Heracleon.'')
Heresy: Used to describe Gnosticism and other secular Christians by the Catholic church. The original Greek meaning is 'choice.' Usually established by declaration, but anything not approved by the 'church' could be considered heresy. Simon Magus is most often held out as a heretic. Tertullian, accuses him of using 'Helen,' as a ruse, in his work ''The Treatise of The Soul.'' Clement of Alexandria regards Marcion and some other 'Gnostics,' as heretics. (See; Iranaeus, Simon Magus, See also; Hippolytus, Tertullian.)

Hermeneutics: The science of interpretation, or interpretation theory.

Hermes Trimegistos: Character in ''Asclepius,'' and ''Discourse of the 8th and 9th.'' (NHL)Regarded as related to the ancient God Hermes. Hermes Trimegistos, is mentioned in several Jewish works as knowing Abraham, and mentioned by Solomon. (See also; ''The Kybalion,'' Three Initiates, Inner Traditions, 2004.)

Hippolytus: 3rd Century Roman Christian leader who wrote "Philosophoumena," and other refutations against heresy much directed against Gnosticism. Known to have been associated with Tertullian in standing against some Gnostic beliefs. Hippolytus wrote ''The Refutation of All Heresies,'' where in Book 5, he discloses the Sethians, and Naassenes (See ; Iranaeus, See also; ''Gnostic Secrets of the Naassenes,'' by Gaffney, Inner Traditions, 2004.)

Hylic: "Of matter." Can be thought of as a level of thinking, dealing with the lowest portion of human nature. It is considered living by instinctual drives with no sublimation. Hylics, choikus, sarkics, etc. are said to be below 'Psychics' which are below 'Gnostokoi,' the highest order of transcendence according to Valentinian and other Gnostic teaching. The world of the psychic, is still in the realm of the hylics in most Gnostic scenarios because existence in the earthly state separates one from the pleroma. (See; Psychic, Kenoma. Pleroma.)

Hypishrone: Name (fem.) meaning "high minded one." Title of Tractate 4, Codex XI, of the Nag Hammadi Lib.

Hypostasis: Means 'reality' as in "Hypostasis of the Archons," Reality of the Rulers." (See; II.4 of the Nag Hammadi Lib.)

Ignatius: (50-100 A. D.) Also called Theophorus, born in Syria. Ignatius was the third Bishop of Antioch, appointed by Peter. He was known to be close to Polycarp, and thought to have met the Apostle John. Is noted for coining the term Catholic. (New Advent.)

Ineffable: Means, 1. Incapable of being expressed; indescribable or unutterable. See Synonyms; unspeakable. 2. Not to be uttered; taboo: "the ineffable name of God." (American Heritage Dictionary)....''Moreover it is these who have known him who is, the Father, that is, the Root of the All, the Ineffable One who dwells in the Monad. He dwells alone in silence, and silence is tranquillity since, after all, he was a Monad and no one was before him.'' (''A Valentinian Exposition.'')

Irenaeus: (130-202) Author of "Against Heresies" and other works. He was a main proponent against Gnosticism and is responsible for the early formation of Orthodox Christianity. He became Pope, after winning the position over Valentinus. He claimed Apostolic succession from having studied from Polycarp. (See; ''The Early Church,'' Chadwick, Penquin, 1993. See also; New Advent, Online.)

Isidore: Son of Basilides, who according to Hippolytus received special teaching from Mathias. He wrote trying to show that Greek philosophers borrowed from the Prophets. He also held that passions emanated from a part of the soul.

Josephus: (38-107) A Jewish historian, and author of the "Jewish War" and "The Jewish Antiquities." Josephus recorded the existence of Jesus and early Christianity, his work is significant as a non-biblical record.

Jerome: (340-420) Prolific author. In his letter to Pammachius and Oceanus, he becomes a critic of Gnostics and Origen, although he is known to have studied the works of Valentinus, Marcion, Menander, and others. "On the ground taken by these persons we have no right to condemn Valentine, Marcion, or the Cataphrygians, or Manichaeus, none of whom are named by the council of Nicea, and yet there is no doubt that in time they were prior to it.'' (New Advent)

Jesus: (?-33 CE) The Son of Joseph and Mary, and brother of James the Just, regarded as the founder or person for whom Christianity was formed.

Jeu: Character in "Pistis Sophia" designated as the "Overseer of the Light" and angel of the 'Lord.' (See also Bruce Codex: "Books of Jeu.") Jeu is the name used for God in "Jue, Book One.'' The book is a description to a meditation schema, apparently for the process or training for Gnosis.

Justin Martyr: (100-165 C.E.) From Asia Minor. Teacher of Tatian, student of Platonic philosophy, and a Christian apologist. Wrote "Dialogue with the Jew Tryphon. "He was certainly not a genius nor an original thinker." A true eclectic, he draws inspiration from different systems, especially from Stoicism and Platonism. Weizsäcker (Jahrbücher f. Protest. Theol., XII, 1867, 75. New Advent.) Is known to have tried to study from a Pythagorean teacher who turned him down because he did not know music. (New Advent)

Kabbalah: A Jewish method of study based upon the ''Tree of Life,'' described as a 'map of human consciousness.' ''The literal Kabbalah, is that section concerned with the information contained in Kabbahlistic teachings, particularly those found in the Bible. It includes Gematria- the science and art of number and letter manipulation, and all forms of evocative reading of ''holy'' books using appropriate Kabbalistic codes and interpretations." (''The Complete Guide to The Kabbalah, '' Parfait, Rider, 2001. pg. 7.) "When a student delves into the study of the Kabbalah, he begins with the sefirot. From Malkhut to Ayin, they constitute a ladder of ascent "back to the One." Each seeker gains insights on the sefirot, one by one, and as they go up the divine body, they get closer and closer to knowing God." (

Kalyptos: A state of being from the Aeon of the Barbelo, which has the ability of physical form in Sethian lore. May be written as an entity, but is more likely a description of a state of being in becoming mortal. ''He can [see] with his perfect soul those who belong to Autogenes; with his mind , those who belong to the Triple Male, and with his holy spirit, those who belong to Protophanes. He can learn of Kalyptos through the powers of the spirit from whom they have come forth in a far better revelation of the Invisible Spirit.'' (See Sethian, and Barbelo, See also the text, ''Zostrianos.'')

Kenoma: The earthly or hylic state of the being. In the Gnostic schema(s) the kenoma is the imperfect and the antithesis of pleroma (plhrwma), where all are in a state of privation and unreality. The term is not used directly in Sethian texts. (See Iren. Haer. I.4.I (M.7.480A); ib 1.4.2 (484A); Clem.exc.Thdot.31 (p117.11; M.9.676A); Thdt.haer.I.7 (4.298).

Kerygma: Refers to preaching or declaring proclamations. May also be a reference to 'charismata' a term used for socio-types with the personal quality of charisma.

Kyclos: "Circles". Something like the circulation of energy of the Chakras of Kundalini, or the Ouroboros, the serpent like creature biting its own tail. A system of circulating or cycles of worlds, like the sun and moon, that effect both heaven and earth. See also the diagrams of the Ophites, circles which represent Father and Son.

Leviathan: The world serpent. This is kind of like the Ouroboros in the negative worldly aspect. Just as the Ouroborus refers to infinity and the cycle, Leviathan is inside the cycle. Some systems has them of basically the same thing with one referring to the inside, and the other the outside. (See; Kyklos)

Logos: Often translated as "word," it's true meaning is much more multifunctional (a better translation would be "reason"). Logos was an ancient Greek term referring to "reasoned speech," later adapted by the ''Gospel of John'' to signify Christ. Logos, and Tao, are synonymous. (See; Pleroma, Cosmology, and Cosmogony.)

Mandaeanism: Pre-Christian, or first century Persian Gnostic (dualism) religion of the middle east that has survived into modern times. 'Manda' is from the Aramaic language which translates to 'gnosis' in Greek. They professed a kinship to the teachings of "John the Baptist,'' and are said to exist today in Iraq.

Mani: (216- 276 CE) founder of the religion of Manicheanism. Believed to have written or had part in the "Manichean Psalms of Thomas."

Manichoi: Meaning one who has become a solitary one, or unified. (Hoeller p. 151)

Marcellina: (330-398 A.D.) The only sister of St. Ambrose of Milan. She was older than St. Ambrose, and was born most probably at Trier, where her father resided as "Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum." Mentioned to have led a Gnostic sect founded by Heracleon.

Marcion: (85-160 CE) Marcion was son of the Bishop of Sinope in Pontus, Asia Minor. He organized a series of Gnostic congregations in the eastern Mediterranean which survived into the 3rd century CE. He wrote a book called "Antitheses" which earned him excommunication by the Christian leaders of Rome. He wrote the "Gospel of Marcion," and rejected Jewish influence in Christianity. He rejected the institution of marriage. He believed that the Demiurge arranged Jesus' persecution and crucifixion. But the death of Christ on the cross was only a hallucination, since Jesus did not have a physical body.

Marcionites: Followers of Marcion who formed a sect around 144 A.D. They rejected the idea of the Jewish God, and declared that Jesus was not the son of the Jewish creator. Considered by some to be Gnostic like in their understanding of dualism.

Marsenes: Name of Tractate 1, Codex X, Nag Hammadi Lib. A Sethian writing also found in the Bruce Codex, also name of main character of the work, a Gnostic Prophet.

Matthias: According to Clement of Alexandria, teachings of Matthias were used by Basilideans and perhaps other Gnostic groups. According to Hippolytus, Basilides and his son Isidore claimed to have learned from Matthias 'secret words,' which he had received in private teaching from the Savior. A disciple called Mathias replaced Judas Iscariot in apostolic succession after the crucifixion of Jesus. (May be the character in, who writes the text, "The Book of Thomas the Contender.'')

Meditation: The act of concentrating the mind for a specific purpose, or response. The act is different than contemplation in some contexts, in others it may mean the same. Sethian Gnostics rejected prayer as to an eminent power. They did use ''contemplation,'' or what we might call self-hypnosis today, which was aided by the use knowledge of the monad. (See Sethian Monadology)

Melchizedek: Name of Nag Hammadi text, Tractate 1, Codex IX., also name of the main character of the text, who names the "God most High," encountered by Abraham. Melchizedek, is called "the great Paralemptor of Light" (purifier) in "Pistis Sophia," (Askew Codex). Genisis 14.-18. ''And Melchizedek king of Salem brought forth bread and wine. And he was priest of God Most High.'' Psalms 110-4; '' Jehovah hath sworn, and will not repent: Thou art a priest for ever After the order of Melchizedek.''

Menander: Follower of Simon Magus, associated with Saturnis, who taught in Syria and Antioch. (Hoeller p. 78-79)

Merovingean: A pre 11th century Frankish Dynasty, the ''Priors of Zion,'' claim the Merovingean Dynasty is of the bloodline of Jesus Christ. This is the basis for the ''Da Vinci Code, by Dan Brown, and is largely fiction.

Metenoia: This is the "change of mind" or perspective that happens to the initiate in the process of Gnosis, or spiritual transcendence. ''It is turning the mind to the perception of the divine.'' ("Hara'' {Balance} by Durkheim, Inner Traditions, 2004, p. 131.)

Monad: From the Greek word, meaning "one", "single" or "unique." It has ample descriptions according to different contexts: According to Pythagoras it was the first thing in existence. ''The Valentinian Exposition'' declares Jesus the 'Monad.' (See Sethian Monadology.) mo·nad; (mnd) n. 1. Philosophy; An indivisible, impenetrable unit of substance viewed as the basic constituent element of physical reality in the metaphysics of Leibnitz. 2. Biology; A single-celled microorganism, especially a flagellate protozoan of the genus ''Monas.'' 3. Chemistry ; An atom or a radical with valence 1. (Online Webster's Dic. See also; Wikipedia.) The Monadic sequence to the Triad is expressed is by the ''Oracles of Zoroaster,'' which illuminates the sequence.....
25. The Monad first existed, and the Paternal Monad still subsists.
26. When the Monad is extended, the Dyad is generated. 27. And beside Him is seated the Dyad which glitters with intellectual sections, to govern all things and to order everything not ordered.
28. The Mind of the Father said that all things should be cut into Three, whose Will assented, and immediately all things were so divided.
29. The Mind of the Eternal Father said into Three, governing all things by Mind.
30. The Father mingled every Spirit from this Triad. 31. All things are supplied from the bosom of this Triad.
32. All things are governed and subsist in this Triad
33. For thou must know that all things bow before the Three Supernals.
34. From thence floweth forth the Form of the Triad, being preexistent; not the first Essence, but that whereby all things are measured.
35. And there appeared in it Virtue and Wisdom, and multiscient Truth.
36. For in each World shineth the Triad, over which the Monad ruleth.''
The "Three Supernals'' is perhaps a reference to the Kabbalah, but probably refers to the state of Tripartite.

Monogenes: The "Only begotten." Probably means one thing, (one gene) that can grow into more complex things in the context of the Monadology, like the term Word, in the Sacred Tetrad. (See; Autogenes and Logos. See also; "A Valetinian Expostition.'') May also resemble the idea of meme.

Monoimus: (150-210) Student of Tatain. He is known for coining the usage of the word 'Monad' for use in the Christian Gnostic context. However the study of the Monad, certainly preceded him, as the Zoroastrians, Pythagoreans, and Hermetics used the technology of the monad prior to Christianity, and was used by Sethians prior to Monoimus.

Montanus: Second Century founder of the Montanists, who held that the Holy Spirit was giving new revelations to the (his) Church. They made declarations against certain social practices, and practiced fasting, declared the sanctity of a single marriage. They were declared heretics by the 'Church' and rejected. It is doubtful that this sect could be considered Gnostic in terms of heresy that they were accused of by the Bishop of Rome. They were probably anti-Gnostic in spite of claims to the Holy Spirit. Tertullian is said to have joined this group in his later years. (See; Tertullian.)

Nag Hammadi: (Naj Hammadi) Name of the Egyptian town where the Gnostic texts and scriptures were unearthed in 1947. Also refers to the Nag Hammadi Library. (NHL)

Nous: "Mind", The soul, not the same as 'pneuma' or spirit. It is the part of the anima that gives us consciousness. The anima as a whole gives life (or literally movement.. "animates") to our bodies. Tatian declares the soul as a special kind of spirit. (See; Tatian's "Letter to the Greeks')

Numerology: The study of numbers, and their use in divination, revelation, or prediction. The I Ching is based upon the trigrams, or Ba Gua, as divinations based upon astrology and numerology. Trigrams that represent ''variations,'' instead of divinations can make the Tai Chi, and the Sethian Monadology a measurement instrument of enlightenment. (See; ''The History of Chinese Philosophy,'' Vol. 2., by Fun Yu-Lan, Princeton, 1953.)

Ogdoad: Regarded in some texts as the "eighth kingdom above the hebdomas." It is the realm of the Demiurgos (or sometimes that is the 7th, with the eighth being that of Sabaoth), as well as usually being the realm of the zodiac (dodecon). Sometimes it is also seen as the beginning of freedom from the Archons, and the beginning of connection to the Aeons. Pythagoris says...
"The ogdoad--8--was sacred because it was the number of the first cube, which form had eight corners, and was the only evenly-even number under 10 (1-2-4-8-4-2-1). Thus, the 8 is divided into two 4's, each 4 is divided into two 2's, and each 2 is divided into two 1's, thereby reestablishing the monad. Among the keywords of the ogdoad are love, counsel, prudence, law, and convenience. Among the divinities partaking of its nature were Panarmonia, Rhea, Cibele, Cadmæa, Dindymene, Orcia, Neptune, Themis, and Euterpe (a Muse)." (Thomas Taylor's Theoretic Arithmetic, Thought by one source to be the rarest and most important compilation of Pythagorean mathematical fragments extant.)

''... the Ogdoad, which is the eighth, and that we might receive that place of salvation." (''The Testimony of Truth.'' See also; ''A Valentinian Exposition.'')

Ophites: Also called Naassenes. (Sethians) A 2nd century Greek Gnostic sect who are associated with their reverence toward 'ohis' the serpent. They contended that the serpent represented the introduction of good and evil in the Garden of Edan. Known to have divided into other sects, like Borborites with diverse beliefs. Used a symbol of an equilateral cross in the center of a circle, called the Ophite Cross, and other symbolistic icons using circles, leviathans. (See; Gaffney, Hippolytus, Ref. of All Her. Bk 5, See also; ''The Brother of Jesus,'' Butz, Inner Traditions, 2005.)

Oracle: A shrine consecrated to the worship and consultation of a prophetic deity, as that of Apollo at Delphi. A person, such as a priestess, through whom a deity is held to respond when consulted. The response given through such a medium, often in the form of an enigmatic statement or allegory. A person considered to be a source of wise counsel or prophetic opinions. An authoritative or wise statement or prediction. A command or revelation from God. In the Bible, the sanctuary of the Temple. (American Heritage Dictionary.) (See; ''Oracles of Zoroaster.'')

Origen: (185- 254 C.E.) Born in Alexandria. He studied Greek philosophy with Ammonius, and others. He became a Christian under Clement. Some of his surviving work is considered somewhat Gnostic in its nature according to later western Christian leaders. Origen was declared heretical on the basis of his beliefs in the pre-existence of souls and his beliefs about apokatastasis. In 553 A.D the Chalcedonians anathematized him.

Orosius, Paulus: (385-420 c.) Latin writer that opposed Origenists, and Gnostics, especially the Pricilliannists, who advocated that Jesus was ascetic in his nature. He sided with Augastine in declaring heretical works, and identified a book called ''Memoria of the Apostles,'' in which he identifies the parable of the ''sower.'' "A sower went forth to sow his seed, the sower was not good: asserting that had he been good he would not have been careless, nor cast his seed by the wayside or on stony places or unfilled ground: willing it to be understood that that this (the ruler of the world?) was the sower, who scattered the souls he had caught into various bodies as he pleased. In the same book much is said about moist things, and the principle of fire: he would have it understood that all good things happen in this world, not by the power of God, but by contrivance.'' ( "The New Testament Apocrypha,'' James, Apocryphile Press, page, 21.)

Ouroboros: This is an image of the serpent biting it's own tail, and is meant to imply infinity. Or, possibly, eternally being stuck in the material cycle.

Oxyrynchus: Place in Egypt, and adopted name for Greek fragmented copies (3, Oxy 654, 655, et sec), and of the Gospel of Thomas and other works. (See also; The Five Gospels,'' p. 546.)

Pachomius: (290-346) Founded the Christian monastery around Nag Hammadi Egypt. Thought by some to have held Gnostic beliefs. He is known as the most probable person to have had the Nag Hammadi texts. He is known to have opposed Athanasius who took over as the Orthodox authority in Alexandria around 297, ending the reign of Origen there. Athanasius, is said to have organized the books of Bible before the Nicean influence of Eusebius. He opposed the Gnostics, and is known to have posted himself in front of the Nag Hammadi mountains, where the texts were eventually found. (Encyclopaedia Britannica)

Pantaenus: (b.?- 212) Appointed to head the Christian Catechise School of Alexandria by Peter. Originally, the Alexandrian church was thought to be founded by Mark, Peter, Barnabus, and Glaucius. Known to have been a Stoic, and teacher of Clement. Pantaenus is known to have done missionary work as far east as India. Claims to have discovered Eastern Christians in possession of the ''Gospel of Matthew,'' written in Hebrew and presented by Bartholomew.

Papias: (70-155 A.D.) Papias had associations with Polycarp and with St. John himself, and of "others who had seen the Lord." (Irenaeus, ''Against Heresies,'' v.33.3) He is said to have been Bishop of Hierapolis, in Phrygia. Only fragments of his work have survived and they are called, "Exposition of the Oracles of the Lord." Papias is said to have claimed that the ''Gospel of Matthew.'' was written first, and Mark served as a scribe for Peter's work. Three fragments from Clement of Alexandria's work confirm this idea. (See; Clement's Fragments- Online. See also; Works of Henry Barchlay Swete, 1835-1917. See also; ''New Testament Apochrapha'' James, Apochrypile Press, 2004.)

Parable: Stories with a point that Jesus is believed to have spoken to the multitudes around Galilee. (See the ''Gospel of Thomas;'' Sayings 8, 9, 20, 57, 63, 64, 65, 76, 96, 97, 98, 107,109. According the "Apochryphon of James" and "Pistis Sophia" the parables are passages which relate or are intentional mysteries. In Greek (parabole), meaning comparison, or similitude, placing beside or together. Can also refer to the interior dimensions of a cone. Clement of Alexandria writes:

"Wherefore the holy mysteries of the prophecies are veiled in the parables -- preserved for chosen men, selected to knowledge in consequence of their faith; for the style of the Scriptures is parabolic. Wherefore also the Lord, who was not of the world, came as one who was of the world to men. For He was clothed with all virtue; and it was His aim to lead man, the foster-child of the world, up to the objects of intellect, and to the most essential truths by knowledge, from one world to another.
Wherefore also He employed metaphorical description; for such is the parable, -- a narration based on some subject which is not the principal subject, but similar to the principal subject, and leading him who understands to what is the true and principal thing; or, as some say, a mode of speech presenting with vigor, by means of other circumstances, what is the principal subject." (''Stromata,'' Bk. VI, et sec.)

Paraclete; Parakleiton: (puraclete) "Comforter" or one who pleads a case for another. This word is sometimes used for the Holy Spirit or for the Logos. (See "1st Book of Jeu") ''The followers of Valentinus say that Jesus is the Paraclete, because he has come full of the Aeons, having come forth from the whole. For Christ left behind Sophia, who had put him forth, and going into the Pleroma, asked for help for Sophia, who was left outside; and Jesus was put forth by the good will of the Aeons as a Paraclete for the Aeon which had passed. In the type of the Paraclete, Paul became the Apostle of the Resur­rection.'' (Theodotus, source, Dr. Andrew Criddle.)

Parallel: The ''Five Gospels,'' by Funk, Harper, 1993, pg. 544, states that a gospel parallel, is one where, ''In a gospel parallel or synopsis the gospels are arranged in parallel columns with matching materials opposite each other.''

In the case of literary dependence referencing a parallel, Karen King suggests the following criteria in determining the characteristic of viable literary dependence. (parallel) The reference to this work is... (''The Gospel of Mary Magdala,'' King, Polebridge, 2003. pg. 110.)

1. Extensive word-for-word similarity, (citation).
2. Similar arrangement or ordering of materials.
3. Similar narrative context or meaning.
4. The use of a citation formula. (For instance each saying in the ''Gospel of Thomas,'' starts with 'Jesus said,' or someone talking to him, in an obvious schema. {My insertion} King uses, ''as it is written,'' and ....)
5. Use of language specific to the source work.

Parousia: To be present, pertaining to the Second Coming of Christ in Apocalyptic works. (See; "Apocalypse of Peter," Nag Hammadi Lib.)

Paul: ''In the type of the Paraclete, Paul became the Apostle of the Resur­rection. Immediately after the Lord's Passion he also was sent to preach.'' (Theodotus) Paul was originally Saul of Tarsus, who persecuted Gnostics. He is thought to have been present during the execution of Stephan the first Martyr.

Pharisatha: Name given to Jesus in Syriac, according to the "Gospel of Phillip."

Pharisees: The name means 'the separated ones.' Pharisees were a lay movement of the Jewish Temple noted for their adherence to Jewish law. (See; Saducee. See also; ''The Five Gospels.'')

Pharmakeia: Is roughly equivalent to witchcraft. Contrary to the accusations of the heresiologists, Gnostic writers seemed to be against any form of sympathetic magic or divination. The reason for this is not that it doesn't necessarily work, but that it's focus is still within the hylic and psychic spheres of thought. ESP, astrology etc. are only applicable to the realm of Heimarene. (See; Heimarene.)

Philo Judaeus: (25 BCE- 50 CE) A Jewish philosopher of Alexandria who synthesized the Old Testament with Greek and Pythagorean philosophies. (See; ''Stromata.'')

Pistis: "Faith." Usually in regard to having faith in Jesus for salvation.

Plane: Means "error," to denote the same concept and can be used for both the cosmic mistake, and a personal, or earthly lack of understanding. (Hoeller p. 88) May also be a synonym for level, as cosmic level or plane of attainment.

Plato: (429-348 BCE) Athenian philosopher, student of Socrates, associated with the mysticism of Pythagoras. Known for his philosophy on the concept of forms, which may have influenced Gnostic thought in regard to the concept of forms, and the nature of the soul. A partial copy of ''Plato's Republic,'' is contained in the Nag Hammadi Library.

Pleroma: The word means "fullness," and the 'All.' It refers to ''all existence beyond matter. Refers to the world of the Aeons, the heavens or spiritual universe, which represents being out of the state of matter. According to the "Gospel of Truth" "....all the emanations from the Father are Pleromas." see Tractates 3, 2, Codices, I, and XII, Nag Hammadi Lib. Pleroma can have other connotations according to the Gnostic school of thought, some differences in Sethian and Valentinian (other) schools can be noted. Pleroma, is different than Logos. (See; Logos, See aslo; Gaffney, p. 246.)

Pneumatic: One who identifies with the spirit (pneuma), beyond that of the physical (hylic) world and the intellect alone (psychic). The pneuma, described in the ''Gospel of Phillip,'' as 'breath,' refers to bonding with the internal spark (spinther) that came from and is drawn to reunite with the Father in some Gnostic schema. One who awakens it (the spinther) within the self does it through the process of gnosis. (See; Gregory of Nicea (Basil), who used the term in his mystical teachings, and is a later term which connotes Gnostic. See; ''Early Christian Mystics,'' McGinn, Crossroads, 2003.)

Pneumatophoroi: One who has united his soul with the 'light' (Sophia, Wisdom) achieving Gnosis which is thought in Christian Gnosticism to be a union with the Holy Spirit. A common name for those who have reached this state are 'spirit bearers.' Those having reached this state are mentioned in "Acts" and Pauline works. Thought to wear the Holy spirit like a garment. (See; ''1,000 Things You Always Wanted to Know About the Holy Spirit, by Lang, Thomas Nelson Pub. 1999.)

Poimandres: "Shepherd of Men" This is a reference to the first androgynous emanation which guides us back to the light in the process of Gnosis. A Hermetic (rather than Gnostic) term that is basically an allegory of transcendence through a Sophia and a Logos.

Polycarp: (69-155 A.D.) Thought to have been appointed Bishop of Smyrna by Peter. He wrote the "Epistle of St. Polycarp," or "Epistle to the Philippians," and was known to be in contact with Ignatius, and other noted early Christians. Is thought to have rejected the teachings of Marcion, but stated that, "For every one who does not confess that Jesus Christ has come in the flesh is antichrist; and whosoever does not confess the testimony of the cross, is a devil, and whosoever perverteth the oracles of the Lord (to serve) his own lusts, and saith there is neither resurrection nor judgment, this man is a first-born of Satan." (New Advent, Catholic Encyclopedia. See also; Irenaeus. See also; ''Epistle of St. Polycarp,'' "The Lost Books of the Bible,'' Eden, LB Press. 1926-01.)

Praxis: Practice. Can mean an act; by extension, a function: also can mean deed, office, work.

Preterest: A person who believes that the prophecies of the Apocalypse have already been fulfilled.

Procatarctic: Word to describe a type of thought process used by Clement of Alexandria. "Procatarctic causes being removed, the effect remains. But a Synectic cause is that, which being present, the effect remains, and being removed, the effect is removed....The Synectic is also called by the synonymous expression "perfect in itself." Since it is of itself sufficient to produce the effect." ( See; Synectic.)

Protennoia: (pronoia), "Providence." Defined as the female voice found in the Gnostic light. (See the Trimorphic Protennoia, Nag Hammadi Library, also the long version of the ''Apocryphon of John) ''Now, first among all those passions [...] nor [...] him, since, after all, Pronoia caused the correction to project shadows and images of those who exist from the first and those who are and those who shall be. This, then, is the dispensation of believing in Jesus for the sake of him who inscribed the All with likenesses and images and shadows.'' ('' A Valentinian Exposition.'')

Protophanes: The perfect male mind, as defined in the Nag Hammadi text, ''Zostrianos.'' ''The great male invisible Mind, the perfect Protophanes has his own water as you [will see] when you arrive at his place.''

Prunikus: "Whore" Sophia is sometimes referred to as "Pistis Sophia Prunikus". The fallen Sophia. In some Gnostic works Sophia is considered fallen because outside her perfect self in the pleroma, she has 'fallen' to the earthly, hylic state as an entity.

Ptolemaeus: (160 A.D.) A student of Valentinus. He admitted there was a psychic nature to the body. See his "Letter to Flora,'' (''The Other Bible,'' Barnstone, Harper, 1984, p. 621.) (Hoeller, p. 90.)

Psalms: Part of the Hebrew Bible known in the first century. ''Pistis Sophia,'' using the numbering system of the Hebrew Bible, compares Psalms with the teaching of Jesus. The 'Pistis' text, contains, ''Psalms,'' 68, 70, 69, 101, 87, 129, 81, 24., 30., 34., 51., 108., 50, and 84, appear or are mentioned in the text. There are corresponding, Repentence passages to the mentioned Psalms. The ''Manaecheaen Psalms of Thomas,'' correspond in literary style and context to the accompanying passages that are presented with the Psalms, and ''Repentance'' verses in ''Pistis Sophia.''

Psychic: This level of thinking is the one right above "hylic," and below 'Pneumatophoroi' It's drive is the intellect, or normal understanding of the mind. While alive in the earthly state, the psychic remains as a hylic. (See also Hoeller, p. 110) ''Mankind came to be in three essential types, the spiritual, the psychic, and the material, conforming to the triple disposition of the Logos, from which were brought forth the material ones and the psychic ones and the spiritual ones.'' ("Tripartite Tractate'') ''...even Valentine {Valentinus} teaches that Christ's body was Psychic.'' (''Stromata,'' Book 3.)

Pythagoras: (582 B.C.- 496 B.C.) Greek mathematician and philosopher, known best for the Pythagorean Theorem. Known to have had a profound effect on Gnostic students of philosophy. Specified the monad as the first thing in existence. Pythagorean theories of the Monad, compared by Fung Yu-Lan author of ''The History of Chinese Philosophy,'' Vol. 2, Princeton, 1953, show the use of the Pythagorean tetraktys of the decad, and the Tai Chi are similar. The sequence of the Tai Chi, the Pythagorean tetraktys, and the Sethian Monadology seem to be based upon the sequence of the creation myth in the Pleroma, and the application of the sequence to human action in the Logos, or kenoma. (See; Craftsman. See also; ''The Table of Ten Numbers.)

Redaction: The act of changing a text for a specific purpose. (See; "The Five Gospels,'' pg. 547.)

Resurrection: In Gnostic terms the resurrection takes place in the process of Gnosis while one is still animate. According to the "Gospel of Phillip," "It is fitting that we acquire the resurrection so that when we strip off the flesh....."

Rhodon: ( circa 180 C.E.) Was supposed by St. Jerome to have been the author of the work against the Cataphrygians, usually ascribed to Asterius Urbanus. Rhodon was a student of Tatian who wrote against the philosophies of Marcion. (New Advent.)

Sabaoth: Earthly form of Yaldaboath, (begetter of the Heavens)... "truth which is the power of Sabaoth the Good which is in thy material body - that is the truth which sprouted from the earth." ( See; "Pistis Sophia") Also a form relating to Deity. ''SHBOH, meaning The Seven.'' (See; ''The Chaldæan Oracles of Zoroaster.'' Edited and revised by Sapere Aude. [William Wynn Westcott] With an introduction by L. O. [Percy Bullock] [1895]. See also; "Origin of The World," and ''The Testimony of Truth.'')

Saducees: Jewish aristocracy who aligned themselves with the Roman Empire, and controlled the Jewish Council called the Sanhedrin. High priests of the Jewish Temple were Saducees. There were also Pharisees who were high in temple hierarchy. ( See; ''The Five Gospels,'' Jesus Seminar, Harper-Collins, 1997.)

Sacrophilia: Alignment of sensibility (possibly the soul, nous) toward or with the body and spirit. (See; "Birth of Christianity," Crossan, pg. 37-38.)

Sacrophobia: Opposition of spirit to body. Can include a compendium of human fears of hylic nature that effect the perspective of the body, spirit, and soul. In Gnostic terms the body is what makes the kenomic state impure, as it is seen to pollute the pleromic state which is thought to be pure. (See; ''The Birth of Christianity,'' Crossan, Harper, 1998.)

Saklas: Literally means "fool." It is another name for the Demiurge. In most Gnostic schema those entities that are not in the non-corporeal pleromic state are thought to be in the hylic state, and imperfect. Some are considered incapable of Gnostic transcention, and are doomed. In the ''Gospel of Judas,'' Saklas is considered Satan, or satanic. (See; ''Apocryphon of John,'' ''The Apocalypse of Adam,'' and ''The Gospel of Judas.'')

Sarkic: "Fleshly" (Greek sarkikos) Same as or similar to "hylic" but may connote the lowest form of Gnostic understanding, animalistic. "The Book of Thomas the Contender" quotes Jesus as saying some men are beasts.

Saturninus: (100-125 A.D.) An Antioch Gnostic philosopher noted for his strong dualism between God and Satan. Thought to have strong feelings toward ascetic views. A student of Simon Magus. (See; Simon Magus, Hoeller p. 78-79.)

Samael: The word "Samael" means "blind god" and is another name for the Demiurge, in some Gnostic schema.

Septuagent: The Greek version of the Hebrew Bible, containing the Deuteroconon, which are books not used in the later Vulgate. ''Biblia Polyglotta Complutinus,'' appeared around 1514. The ''Vulgate,'' is the Latin version of the Bible. (See; ''Smith's Bible Dictionary, Smith, Thomas nelson, 1986. See also; Torah.)

Seth: ''From Adam three natures were begotten. The first was the irrational, which was Cain's, the second the rational and just, which was Abel's, the third the spiritual, which was Seth's. Now that which is earthly is "according to the image," that which is psychical according to the " likeness " of God, and that which is spiritual is according to the real nature; and with refer­ence to these three, without the other children of Adam, it was said, "This is the book of the generation of men." And because Seth was spiritual he neither tends flocks nor tills the soil but produces a child, as spiritual things do. And him, who "hoped to call upon the name of the Lord" who looked upward and whose "citizenship is in heaven" - him the world does not contain.'' (Theodotus, Criddle Collection.)

Sethian: It is a name for a specific sect of Gnostics, but also a category created by scholars to refer to a number of sects that are similar to Valentinians. The Sethians as a group were known to Hippolytus who dedicated Book Five in his work, ''The Refutation of All Hereseys,'' to denouncing them. (See Gaffney) Seth was a character of Gnosticism who represented a savior figure and third son of Adam, founder of the Gnostic race. Generally Sethian works include, "Pistis Sophia," "Allogenes," ''The Gospel of Mary,*'' "Sentences of Sextus," "Marsanes," "Gospel of The Egyptians,*" ''The Apocalypse of Adam,*'' "Origin of The World," ''The Gospel of Thomas,*'' ''The Gospel of Philip,'' "The Three Steles of Seth," "Melchizidek," ''The Apocryphon of John,'' ''The Gospel of Judas,'' Trimorphic Protennoia,'' the un-named text in the Bruce Codex, and ''Zostrianos.'' (Others) Some Sethian works suggest strong ties with Jewish Gnosticism, as well as Platonic thought, as well as Zoroasterism. (They maintained three principles; darkness below, light above, and spirit in-between, according to work attributed to Dr. Roy Blizzard, University of Texas. See also; ''Sethian Gnosticism, A Literary History,'' Turner) see also;
( * Indicates works from the Nag Hammadi Lib., that have other works by the same name.)

Sethian Monadology: The system of the monad, constructed through the tetraktys of the decad, which serves as an underlying philosophy in Sethian Gnosticism. It is developed from the creation myths. The system is like, and based upon that of Pythagoreans, and resembles the principles of the ancient Chinese philosophy of the Tai Chi., which is based upon the ogdoad. The system is based upon working variations of numerical values. Turner states, ''....vigorous arithmological speculation on the first ten numbers, but especially the first four numbers, comprising the Pythagorean tetraktys (the {mode} of the first four numbers). This was carried on by such Pythagoreanizing Platonists as Theon of Smyrna and Nicomachus of Gerasa, who in turn depend in part on similar arithmological and mathematical theories produced by such early first century Platonist figures as Dercyllides, Adrastos of Aphrodisias (a Peripatetic commentator on Plato's Timaeus) and Thrasyllos, a court philosopher under the Emperor Tiberius. The harmonic ratios produced by these first four numbers and the geometric entities of point, line, surface, and solid had been applied to the structure and the creation of the world soul long before by Plato and his successors in the Old Academy, especially Speusippus and Xenocrates. (See; Turner, See also; ''The History of Chinese Philosophy, Vol. 2.,'' by Fung Yu-Lan, Princeton, 1953, See also; ''A Valentinian Exposition.'')

Sextus: (4 BCE- 65-CE ?) A first century Greek Pythagorean philosopher. A collection of his sayings are contained in the Nag Hammadi Lib. Tractate 1 Codex XII.

Silvanus: Name of main character in the "Teachings of Silvanus," Tractate 4, Codex VII. of the Nag Hammadi Lib., anti-Pagan work not thought to be Gnostic. A person called Silvanus was a disciple of Peter who carried messages from Peter to Asia Minor from Rome. (Also mentioned by Paul in 1 Thessalonians 1,1; 2 Thessalonians 1,1; 2 Corinthians 1,19.)

Simon Magus: (1st Century CE) From Samaria, he was thought to be one of the earliest Gnostics. He was skilled in the arts of the Occult. He interpreted the Garden of Eden, exodus from Egypt, and the crossing of the Red Sea as allegories. He was rejected by Peter for his views on the Holy Spirit. (see simony) Simon Magus offered the disciples of Jesus payment for the power to perform miracles. He formed the ancient Gnostic sect of Simonianism, and is thought to have influenced later secular forms of Gnosticism. (See; ''Jung and the Lost Gospels,'' by Hoeller, Theophysical Pub., 1989.)

Simony: The ecclesiastical crime and sin of paying for offices or positions in the hierarchy of a church, named after Simon Magus, who appears in the ''Acts of the Apostles,'' 8:18-24.

Sophia: Means "Wisdom." Like the Logos this is considered a primal form. While the Logos is personified as male, Sophia is female. Logos has a direct and intellectual basis for guidance, Sophia is inspirational (sometimes even sensual). The basic idea is comparable to wisdom being Sophia (sofia) or "Holy Spirit" in the form of pure wisdom. Pistis, means faith, hylic, or Prunikus Sophia refers to the imperfect or earthly state of the living, or earthly form from Pleromic origins. ''As appropriated by Sethianism and the Gnostics in general, Sophia is a hypostatized form of Hokmah, (i.e., the divine Wisdom of Proverbs 8, Job 28, Sirach 24).'' ( See; Turner.)

Sophist: Teachers in 5th Century B.C. Greece who took payment for lecturing. Later Sophists were known for presenting convoluted lectures on political subjects to further their own means. Clement of Alexander denounced them for distorting truths. (See; W. K. C. Guthrie, Sophists (1971); H. Diels, ed., The Older Sophists (1972). "Stromata" Bk 1 )

Soter: "Savior" also a name used for the Logos.

Soteriology: The study of principles of salvation within a religion.

Soul: That part of the human nous that can be activated and bonded with the Holy Spirit, Light, Sophia, etc. (See the Gospel of Phillip, "....the soul bonds with the Holy Spirit..... Nag Hammadi Lib.) According to the ''Acts of Thomas,'' and ''The Heart Sutra,'' and the ''Sutra of Cause and Effect'' the soul is composed of five 'skandas,' or elements, form, perception, consciousness, action, and knowledge. (See ''The Jesus Sutras,'' Palmer, Ballantine, 2001) See also, ''Tatian's Letter to the Greeks,'' ''The soul is a special kind of spirit.''

Spinther: The "spark" or "splinter" of internal divine light, that is awakened with Gnosis. The spinther is considered a divine spark which is cast into the souls of men, by the light cast off by the Perfect man, in some scenerios this is Seth, Adamas, (Adam), or Jesus. (See Pneumatic. See; Gaffney, p. 246.)

Spirit: Meaning a range of things in literalist Christian works including different ideas in the Gospels of Luke, Mark, Matthew and John. The Gospel of Mary refers to the spirit as a part of the human condition, as is the soul. Isidore and Theodotus wrote that spirit emanated from the soul. Also used to denote the Holy Spirit. Can mean vital energy, and probably best thought of as a concentration or type of energy.
"Further, Clement the Stromatist, in the various definitions which he framed, that they might guide the man desirous of studying theology in every dogma of religion, defining what spirit is, and how it is called spirit, says: "Spirit is a substance, subtle, immaterial, and which issues forth without form." ( JOANNES VECCUS, PATRIARCH OF CONSTANTINOPLE, ON THE PROCESSION OF THE SPIRIT. IN LEO ALLATIUS, VOL. I. P. 24) (See also; Theodotus)

Stele: Upright stone or pillar with an inscription or design. (See; "The Three Steles of Seth," Codex VII, Tractate 5, Nag Hammadi Lib.)

Stoic: A philosophy strongly associated with Plato, and commonly accepted by the first century. Stoics held that virtue is attained by adapting nature and reason, they held that there are four cardinal passions: pleasure, desire, distress, and fear. They held that passions arose from false belief and ignorance, and one should adopt an 'apatheia' or an active role of non-passion in human feeling. (See; "The Gospel of Mary Magdala, by Karen King, Polebridge Press, 2003).

Sutra: Refers to literature of Eastern origins, such as the ''Heart Sutra,'' known in Persian and Chinese works. Also refers to Chinese works found in Xian China, which are from an early Christian monestary. The ''Sutra of Cause and Effect,'' contains the five ''Skandas'' of the soul, ''Form, Perception, Consciousness, Action, and Knowledge.'' These descriptions match those in the ''Acts of Thomas,'' and the ''Heart Sutra.'' (See; "The Jesus Sutras,'' Palmer, Ballantine, 2001.)

Syncretism: Refers to combining two or more 'cultural' or otherwise perspectives into one system. Gnosticism (and therefore Christianity), as well as Kabbalah and the Mysteries of Mithras etc. grew from syncretism. Influence of Jewish mysticism, Zoroastrian, and Hermetic contained in the ''Nag Hammadi Library,'' and other works suggest that Sethian Gnosticism is based upon a syncretism.

Syncretism is not eclecticism but is often mistaken for the same thing. The latter is a picking and choosing according to taste, without the internal framework of a genuine understanding of function. The former is when two systems come together with cultural perspectives, or mutual economy that needs to be worked out. Thus the important deeper "hard parts" of a system will still be included after syncretism, but lost on eclecticism.

Synergy: When two or more things combine together to produce or become more than their parts. In the process of Gnosis one must bond with a higher 'wisdom.' This is the plemoric part of enlightenment in the trilogy of gnosis in the Plemoric, Psychic, and Hylic states of the Nous, in becoming a Pneumatic.

Synesis: Means "insight" in the aspect of meditation or contemplation in the physical inter-workings of the bonding with Sophia, as an aspect of Gnosis. It is one of the lower powers that was bound into man from the Aeons, by the Demiurge, as derived from 'a' Gnostic creation scenerio. This concept is like other scenarios of the process in Gnosis of bonding with the 'Light' or Holy Spirit to become Pneumatophoroi, or enlightened.

Synectic: A term used by Clement of Alexandria to mean a type of thought or memory that reflects aspects of the thought process relative to being human. (See "Stromata" Bk VIII by Clement of Alexandria) "But, in truth, Procatarctic causes (thoughts) are more than one both generically and specifically; as, for example, cold, weakness, fatigue, dyspepsia, drunkenness, generically, of any disease; and specifically, of fever. But Synectic causes are so, generically alone, and not also specifically....Further, of causes, some are apparent; others are grasped by a process of reasoning; others are occult; others are inferred analogically." (See also; Procatarctic)

Syzygetic: Having to do with the conjunction or opposition of two heavenly bodies, or either of the points which these occur, most often in regard to the sun and moon.

Syzygos: Literally means "consort". Sometimes used to refer to the twin. Is generally meant to imply the thing to which one is driven to connect with. A person's syzygos is their spirit. ''Sophia's mistake was said to be her drive to create without her syzygos.'' Syzgy, is considered a blending of spirit and soul. (See; Theodotus, Criddle Collection.)

Tai Chi: As an icon the Tai Chi is a symbol, composed of the Yin and Yang circle, surrounded by eight trigrams. It, in terms of function is the underlying philosophy of all Chinese, and 'classical' Oriental philosophy. According to the scholar Fung Yu-Lan, ''The History of Chinese Philosophy, Vol 2.'' Princeton, 1953, the philosophies of Pythagoras, and the Tai Chi are almost identical. The concept of Chi, and Sophia (wisdom), Logos, and Tao, meaning ''Word,'' are identical. The power of male and female polarities in the Tai Chi, resemble the ideas of Pronoia, and Protophanes, in the concept of ''Barbelo.'' ( See Barbelo, and Sethian Monadology. See also; ''The Valentinian Exposition.'') The Tai Chi is associated with the ''Book of Changes,'' (I Ching), in Chinese Philosophy. Pythagoras is thought to have studied Chinese Philosophy, and obviously did. (See; Bulfinch's Mythology, Gramercy, Crown Pub. 1979.) The analogy to the Tai Chi, Sethian values are in ''Tetrakys of the Decad, Monadic Vlaues.''

Tartaros: Keeper of Hades. Also referred to as Tartarucus, Tatrokis, Saklas and Temeluchus in various Christian texts. (See; ''The Book of Thomas the Contender,'' Nag Hammadi Lib. Name is also used by Clement in "Stromata")

Tatian: (110-180) Pupil of Justin Martyr and author of the "Diatessaron," and "Letter to the Greeks." Formed Gnostic sects in Syria called Encratites, meaning literally, 'Masters of Themselves.' Qualified the soul, as a special kind of spirit. (''Letter to the Greeks.'')

Tertullian: (160-230) Native of Carthage who joined literalist Christianity around 196, after becoming a lawyer in Rome. Before he became a Montanist in 207, he argued with Hippolytus against Gnosticism. However his work does not reflect a sound knowledge of any of the pre-Christian, Valentinian, or Sethian epistemologies. (See; Tertullian's, ''Treatise of the Soul.'')

Tetraktys (Tetractys) of the Decad, The Monadic Values: There is no doubt that Sethian Gnostics applied the principles of this paradigm. ''Pythagorus considered all things relative to numbers... How he conceived this process has never been satisfactorily explained.'' (Bullfinch, pg. 289.) Perhaps this is the secret....

Pythagorus considered the monad as the source of all things. In the case of the tetraktys of the decad, the concepts of form and structure are related in mathematical values. These values work in harmony. They are not just a list, they are a set. The first and most obvious is numerical value is the digital sequence of one through ten. 'Monad,' 2. Decad, 3. Triad, 4. Tetrad, 5. Pentad, 6. Hexad, 7. Heptad, 8. Ogdoad, 9. Ennead, and 10. Decad.

Digital sequencing can be done in different base values, like using base six to count on your hands. You count to five on the right hand, and the first digit of the left hand represents six, the next set the left hand finger is given the value of twelve, then eighteen, then the sequence goes up to 35, when you run out of fingers, if you have ten. Another sequencing schema is the Heaven Sequence of the Tai Chi, which is in base eight.

The Pythagorean model showing the tetraktys of the decad is in the form of a triangle, usually shown as only dots, I have placed numbers beside the dots, denoting the digital sequence. Below is a traditional explanation for this sequence, where I have made aditions to show how the Tai Chi, and this sequence are parallel....

o o
o o o
o o o o


2. 3.
4. 5. 6.
7. 8. 9. 10.

1.. The Tetractys represented the organization of space: {Wu Chi, Void, ''Jesus is Silence.'' See; ''A Valentinian Exposition.''}
2.. the first row represented zero-dimensions (a point) {Tai Chi, yin and yang are the same.}
3.. the second row represented one-dimension (a line of two points) {Liang Yi, yin and yang are different}
4.. the third row represented two-dimensions (a plane defined by a triangle of three points) {This is consistent with the San Ti. Man is the same as heaven and earth.}
5.. the fourth row represented three-dimensions (a triangular pyramid defined by four points) {This is consistent with the Si Xiang. This is Yin and Yang seen as two different things, or four types. This parallel to the Tai Chi does not include the Ba Gua (8 trigrams)} Wikapedia source.....
This triangle represents five, or more different mathematical values, not generally recognized unless you apply the Tai Chi model with the parallel of the Tetraktys. The mathematical values are thought of more like aphorisms, or a mantra, rather than calculations in some respect. Pythagoras put everything in terms of math, and I think the statistical terms below can be adapted to both the Tai Chi and the Tetraktys of the Decad.

The digital sequence of one through ten, connotes the decad. What cannotes the the 'tetra' is the number four. In the case of the tetraktys of the decad, the value of four corresponds with the relative value of the mathematical concept of 'mode.' One through six, would make the triangle a triad, and if you add a fifth line, 11. through, 15., to the base, the mode is a pentad. As shown above we have the tetrad. (See; ''The Table of Ten Numbers,''

The mode is the value, or set of like units that appear most frequently in a set. As can be seen in the model of the tetraktys of the decad, all three sides of the triangle contain four units. (This is looking at the triangle of dots as an icon like the Tai Chi.) In terms of the triangle there are four levels, or modes (called types in the ''Gospel of Mary,''), Level 1. is one, level two the decad, is 2. and 3., level three the triad, is 4. 5. and 6., level four the tetrad, is 7. 8. 9. and 10.

O monad
O O decad
O O O triad
O O O O tetrad

A set in most science involving polarity, is called a field or pool, which connotes a perimeter of the form, or the unified body of the set, as a whole. Mode connotes the 'level,' of the form and structure of the pool. Therefor tetrads, hexads, ogdoads, etc. are thought of as modes and levels, which can be applied to fields.

As you build the triangle by adding lines of digits to the base, the mode changes in sequence, but the values of mean, and median, also become relative to the model. This is allegorical to how a seed turns into a tree or plant. This same sequence is thought to be extant in the working of the Logos, Pleroma, Kenoma, and Psyche of man, and collective consciousness of mankind.

This means you are using mathematical terms as points of a contemplation, or meditation, more like aphorism than calculation. Each configuration of the triangle regardless of the mode, retains the value of the monad in the digital sequence. The mode sequence, the mean value in the sequence, and the median values in the sequence, are not mutually exclusive. They work in harmony.

The mode sequence is determined by looking at the triangle like an icon, and determining the number of units each side of the triangle has. The mode sequence has a different numerical value than the digital sequence value. In the Tai Chi, Wu Chi, is the void or zero, and in the Sethian system Jesus is Silence. Tai Chi, is one, meaning Yin and Yang are the same. Liang Yi is the third in the Heaven Sequence, and means Yin and Yang as seperate or different. The student of the Tetraktys retains the triology, or 'tripartite,' as a mindset, in the contemplation of the sequence. "Man's mind/heart, is the same as heaven and earth.'' (''Kenpo Gokui'.')

The next stage in the Heaven Sequence, (Use of even numbers) is the Si Xiang, which represents the tetrad or four units. In the Chinese system Wu Chi = 0, Tai Chi equals 2., Liang Yi = 2, and Si Xiang= 4., puting the Tai Chi in a set of eight parts, symbolically aligned with the Ba Gua, or eight trigrams, making the Tai Chi an organized Ogdoad. The Sacred Tetrad is regarded in the same way, as the Si Xiang, in form, structure, and mechanics. (See; Tai Chi. See; ''The History of Chinese Philosophy,'' Vol. 2, Fung Yu-Lan, Princeton, 1953.)

The mean is determined by adding the number of units, in the digital sequence, then dividing that sum by the number of units, the result is an average number of units. That would be the pentad or five, the mean of ten units. In building form and structure in the Monadology, the constant value of the mean is the value of one, (Monad) and denotes the value of the monad in each consecutive mode in the sequence. The Monad remains integrated into the form and structure of all mode values. (See; Decalogue.)

The median, is the value where half of the units in a set are larger or smaller than the opposite set of units. The median is the point where the set is divided, and determines balance with the reflective or dual values of male/female, good/evil, light and darkness. The odd numbers where their are more units on one half of the set than the other, represents unbalance. Pythagoreans used the terms square for even numbers, and oblong for odd numbers. (Ibid.)

In the application of the sequence the consideration of median, is that 'duality,' reamains a constant regardless of the level, or mode, as does the power of the Monad. Duality can be meant to be more than one feature, when drawing a monadic paradigm, as duality does not always mean opposite, it can mean either, or. In some cases it can be implied as an opposite. It can be a reflective value, like a mirror image, or reflection. (See; Bythos)

For instance, the pentad can be given five values, with good connotations, and their opposite with negative conotations. Five constructive values, are opposed to the destructive values of opposition. The Chinese use the idea of the Wu Xing, or five constructive, and destructive forces. The reflective value or median value (duality) is always considered as part of form and structure, regardless of the mode, or level in the sequence.

The fifth value is the parabolic, more of a geometric adaptation, which has dimensions or perspective, reflection and even vibration. (See; Parables.) The parabolic view is in reference to the higher modes of the Pentad and above, where the structure and form can be seen as multi-dimensional and having perspective. (See; Parabole, which can be shown as viewing the inside of a cone. See also; Gematria.)

As a contemplation device, all the values of the tetraktys of the decad, are imagined in unison as a harmony. This unified perception is imperical to the idea of how the natural order of wisdom works in the tripartite vision of man as being psyche, material, and spiritual. The sequence is operational in the realms of man, heaven and earth.

You can see that 1. 2. 3. and 5. form the equalateral cross, common in the first century. There may be more of these parallels, than I mention at this time. The Platonic tetrad, used in the ''Square of Opposition,'' a tool of logic, can also be seen in the formation of 2. 3. 5. 8. and 9.

If you look at the triagle of dots you will see that 2. 3. 4. 6. 8. and 9. form a circle with 5. in the middle. 1. 7., and 9. are outside the circle. (See Tripartite) As one contemplates this image the fifth value of the parabolic becomes apparent. The image can look like it is multi-dimensional, where the center (5) as seen as closer and further away, adds perspective. The center dot 5. becomes parabolic point of center, and the middle of the sequence.

In regard to the human figure, you can draw arms going up from 2., and 3., and legs off 8. and 9., and you can imagine the human figure in the gematria within the triangle.

In martial arts, especially those aligned with the classic Tai Chi, the points of the shoulders and hips represent the primary centers of the body's natural ''primary square of balance,'' where 5. is the center of the body the diaphram. Some martial artists use this 'cone' image like sights on a gun, aiming at a target, and using the same grid for defense. This shows the tool (sequence) is useful as both applied in the material world, and applied to the psyche. The entire system of Isshin Ryu Karate can be shown in the ''Heaven Sequence,'' as well as the application against opponents.

Theodotus: A student of Valentinus, and Pantaenus in the Alexandrian lineage. Theodotus explains that passions are called spirits: " The passions that are in the soul are called spirits, not spirits of power, since in that case the man under the influence of passion would be a legion of demons; but they are so called in consequence of the impulse they communicate. For the soul itself, through modifications, taking on this and that other sort of qualities of wickedness, is said to receive spirits." ( See; Fragments of Theodotus, Kirby, Criddle. , and Theodotus )

Theudas: (42 CE approx.) Theudas, meaning 'gift from God' declared himself a prophet and was executed while attempting to 'part the Jordan" for his followers. Years later Valentinus laid claim to some of his teaching. ( Ehrman, "Lost Christianities, pg 193, says Theudas was a disciple of Paul, this is not true.. Josephus, Jewish Antiquities 20.97-98 )

Theurgy: 'Works of the Gods' ( See; "Zostrianos"). This refers to human affairs and the effects in the earthly state.

Torah: The first five books of the Bible, "Genesis," "Exodus," "Leviticus," Numbers," and "Deuteronomy," also referred to as "The Law."

Transubstantiation: The act of applying or transference of Holy Spirit into wine and bread. The term is common to the Christian and Gnostic Eucharist, Communion, or sacramental ceremonies. ''A change of substance, {transmutation} usually refering to the doctrine of the Eucharist sacrement of the Lord's Supper, where the bread and wine were declared symbols of the body and blood of Jesus.''( See; ''The Steinerbooks Dictionary of the Psychic, Mystic, and Occult,'' Rudolf Steiner, 1973. pg. 219. See also; "Valentinian Exposition," Baptism A., B., Eucarist, Chrism, etc. Nag Hammadi Lib. See also; ''Gospel of Philip.'')

Treatise: A book or writing directed toward a specific purpose.

Tripartite: Meaning to have three parts. "Triple Headedness, or Triple Power," or a state of three something like as described in the texts "Trimorphic Protennoia," "Gospel of the Egyptians" or "Tripartite Tractate." May refer to the developing state in Gnosis where one learns to perceive oneself in the sense of being in the psychic, living, as in the pleromic state. As a process, man transcends in becoming Hylic, Psychic, and Pneumatic (Gnostokoi or Enlightened). ''Mankind came to be in three essential types, the spiritual, the psychic, and the material, conforming to the triple disposition of the Logos, from which were brought forth the material ones and the psychic ones and the spiritual ones.'' (''Trimorphic Protennoia'') May also have references to other sets of three such as Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, or soul, mind, spirit, or spirit, mind, and body, etc., related to the concept of the triad in the Sethian Monadology. Corresponds to the Supernal triad of the Kabbalah, Kether, Chockmah, and Binah, in the study of the ''Tree of Life.'' Synonymous with the Chinese concept of 'San Ti,' known as the Taoist Trilogy, ''man (Man's mind or heart) is the same as heaven and earth.'' (''Kenpo Gokui,'' Tatsuo Shimabuku. See also; ''Xing Yi Quan Xue,'' Tang, Unique Publications, 2000., Pg.'s 69, 80.) In Hinduism, the Trimurti (also called the Hindu trinity) are three aspects of God, or "Parabrahman," in God's personae as Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva. This Trimurti concept is a tenet most strongly held in Smartism, a denomination of Hinduism as well as Ayyavazhi. VishnuBrahma - the Source/Creator (Tamil: Vethan in Ayyavazhi.) Vishnu - the Preserver/Indwelling-Life (Tamil: Thirumal in Ayyavazhi.) Shiva - the Transformer (Destroyer-Creator) (Tamil: Sivan, in Ayyavazhi). The Trimurti itself is conceived of as a deity and artistically represented as a three-faced human figure.

Valentinus: (100-180 C.E.) Gnostic teacher some believe is the writer or had a part in the writing of the Gnostic "Gospel of the Truth," ''A Valentianian Exposition,'' and others. Also formed secular Gnostic groups who's written works are referred to as Valentinian. The '' A Valentinian Exposition,'' explains in part the use of the ''monad.'' (See; Sethian Monadology.)

Valentinian: A general reference to types of work which seem related, and to have other than Sethian roots. See; ''The Valentianian Exposition,'' "Gospel of Truth," "Tripartite Tractate," others) References to Archons, Aeons, Demiurge, Logos and Autogenes are common to Valentinean works. However, Valentinian works are also related to Sethian ideas.

Wisdom: In Hebrew, 'Chockmah,' see also; Sophia. Meaning Understanding, discernment, enlightenment, erudition, insight, intelligence, judgment, learning, sense. To be wise, ''having intelligence and knowledge.'' (See Harper Collins, ''Dictionary, and Thesaurus,'' 2003.) ''...the personified Wisdom of the ''Old Testiment wisdom literature developed into the gnostic redeemer myth, especially as it identified Jesus with that redeemer, and thus understood Jesus as bringer of the secret redemptive gnosis or logoi.'' (pg. 31) '' Wisdom is not only the mediatrix of creation but also of salvation, and cosmology and soteriology are related to one another in the myth of Wisdom.'' (pg. 105) (James Robinson on ''The Gospel of Thomas, ''The Gospel of Thomas, and Christian Wisdom, 2nd, Davies, Bardic Press, 2005.)

Dr. Stevan Davies' ("Gospel of Thomas, and Christian Wisdom" ) relates Wisdom to Solomon traditions and contained therein on the nature of Wisdom is its 'ordering value.' These descriptions are of great philosophical value to the idea of natural organization in formal study. They pertain to the way all lexicons are formed and this kind of organization is present in philosophy, as well as science. As to Pseudo Solomon.... "This presents a series of ideas on Wisdom. "Included are Wisdom's creative and ordering power, her presence in the world in all human beings, and in the world through all her permeation of all things, and her arrival as spirit to those who call upon her." (Ibid., pages 52-4) "By the time of the writing of the Wisdom of Solomon, Wisdom is not only seen to be active at Creation, it is said to permeate all the world, organizing and underlying all ordered phenomena." (Ibid. p. 54)

Word: A spoken or written symbol of an idea, (Pei-Gaynor). Synonymous with Tao, and Logos. First 'type' of the Sacred Tetrad, Word, Man, Life, Truth, (''Valentinian Exposition.'') "The law of God is perfect, converting souls." The Saviour Himself is called Law and Word, as Peter in "the Preaching," and the prophet: "Out of Zion shall go forth the Law, and the Word of the Lord from Jerusalem." (Theodotus.) ''For he too is called "father" and ''god" and "demiurge" and "king" and "judge" and "place" and "dwelling" and "law."
(''Tripartite Tractate.'') ( See also; Wisdom, Sophia, Enlightenment, Ennoia, Paraclete.)

Yaldabaoth: (Ialdabaoth, Jaldabaoth, 'yalda baoth') From the Aramaic language, meaning "begetter of the Heavens". A name corresponding to the Demiurge meaning Child-lord. (''Jung and the Lost Gospels,'' Hoeller, Quest, 1994, p. 141.)

Zodiac: Means 'circle of life' and refers to the study of astrological signs and predictions due to the position of the planets, stars, and constellations. (See; Kyklos.)

Zoe: Means "Life" and is usually equated with "Eve" which means the same thing in "On the Origin of the World," and "Reality of the Rulers." Zoe Pistis, means Life-Faith. (See; ''Pistis Sophia.'')

Zostrianos: Sethian character of the writing in Tractate 1, Codex VIII. of the Nag Hammadi Lib. The text seems to reflect Zoroastrian (Zarathustra) philosophy in regard to Gnosis. The text is a creation myth. ( See also; ''History of Magic, and the Occult, by Seligmann, Gramercy, 1997.)